Sociology Index



Industrial revolution brought about production of goods for trade and profit using machines to enhance the productivity of labour. The term industrial revolution is used to describe the profound technological changes that began in England in the mid 18th century. The industrial revolution introduced technologies that could employ power from water, steam, gas, coal, electricity and oil to replace or enhance human labour. Industrial revolution made possible a level of economic productivity that had never before been achieved and it initiated a process of unending technological transformation and social change. Socially, the industrial revolution is associated with the rational organization of work and the transformation from a society of self sufficient producers to a society of employed wage workers, and the spread of a market-driven system of allocation of resources.

Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America

Industrial Revolution began in Europe, and but the process of industrialization that spread from Great Britain to Continental Europe in 19th century had disparities between different countries as well as within Europe. In the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution created unprecedented wealth in Western Europe and North America. The Industrial Revolution also saw the rise of vast inequalities between countries that were industrialized and those that were not.

Industrial Revolution Spread From Great Britain

The Industrial Revolution was the transition from agrarian and manual labor-based economy to machine-based production. The Industrial Revolution transformed every aspect of life throughout Europe and the rest of the world. The Industrial Revolution spread from Great Britain to Continental Europe in the 19th century.

What Started The Industrial Revolution?

Multiple reasons and factors played a role in the emergence of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. Abundance of high quality coal suitable for iron production was a major factor and Great Britain enjoyed political stability and since the late 17th century. Population growth in the 17th and 18th centuries which provided the needed labor force as well as increased the demand for manufactured goods.

British Overseas Colonies And The Industrial Revolution
Britain had access to cheap raw materials and had profits from the African slave trade. The British aristocracy supported commerce and manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe was also due to the turmoils of the French Revolution and the French Revolutionary Wars.

Industrial Revolution In Continental Europe: Belgium, France and Germany

Belgium was the second industrialized country after Britain to start Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe. France established itself as the second industrial power in Europe but it could not compete with the British economy. The defeat in the Franco-Prussian War enabled Germany to increase its industrial production and establish itself as a rival to the British industry.


Immigration, Industrial Revolution and Urban Growth in the United States, 1820-1920: Factor Endowments, Technology and Geography - Sukkoo Kim, Washington University, St. Louis - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). - Abstract: Industrial revolution is fundamentally linked with the rise of factories and the decline of skilled artisans in manufacturing. Most scholars agree that factories as compared to artisan shops were intensive in unskilled labor. This paper explores whether Industrial revolution caused massive influx of unskilled immigrants between 1840 and 1920, by significantly increasing the ratio of unskilled to skilled labor endowment, contributed to the growth and spread of factory manufacturing in the United States.

Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution - Peter Temin.
Abstract: There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views using the Ricardian model of international trade with many goods. British trade data are used to implement the test and discriminate between the two views of the Industrial Revolution.

Through Eyes in the Storm: Aspects of the Personal History of Women Workers in the Industrial Revolution.
Abstract: Women's experience of child labour in factories in early nineteenth century England may have increased their psychological susceptibility, both in life-cycle and social-historical trajectories, to non-wage earning roles as mothers. This paper uses as a primary source an official examination into the punishment of a ten-year old female factory worker.