Individualism, a value system,
central to classical liberalism and capitalism, upholds choice, personal freedom, and
self-orientation. Communitarianism is contrasted to
individualism or libertarianism. Unlike individualism
which refers to an individualistic values system, individuation
refers to the process by which individualism is accomplished, the breaking down of
obligatory ties and responsibilities so that the individual is freed from social bond. Such a process must also lead to the adoption of
the value of individualism.
Ten Modes of
Individualism - None of Which Works - And Their Alternatives
Individualism comes in at least ten modes: ontological, logical, semantic, epistemological, methodological
individualism, axiological, praxiological, ethical, historical, and political.
Ontological individualism motivates the thesis that relations are n-tuples of individuals,
as well as radical reductionism and libertarianism.
It is argued that systemism has
all the virtues and none of the defects of individualism and holism. Individualism is a
system rather than an unstructured bag of opinions, which raises the question whether
thorough and consistent individualism is at all possible. - Mario Bunge, McGill
The Division of Institutionalists into 'Humanists' and 'Behaviorists' - By Paul D.
Thorstein Veblen entertained both
"humanistic" and "behavioristic" hypotheses in his explanations of
human behavior and consequently descended into obscurantism.
John R. Commons believed in humanism, whereas Clarence Ayres
was a "behaviorist."
Talcott Parsonss Sociology
of Religion and the Expressive Revolution
The Problem of Western Individualism - Bryan S. Turner, National University
Immanuel Kant distinguished between religion as cult in
which people seek favours from God through prayer and offerings to bring healing and
wealth, and religion as moral action that commands human beings to change their lives. The
Kantian distinction was fundamental to Max Webers view
of the relationship between asceticism and capitalism. Talcott Parsonss early
sociology of religion engaged with this theme in Kant and Weber, but later came to a
re-appraisal of David Émile Durkheim. Parsons
followed Durkheim in studying individualism as a major transformation of society. A
contradiction between individualism as either the legacy of Protestant pietism or the
product of modern consumerism. Parsonss sociology of religion remains
distinctive because he did not subscribe to the secularization
thesis, but instead saw American liberalism as the fulfilment of Protestant individualism.
Cultural Differences in Individualism? Just Artifact. - Spencer
Kagan, G. Lawrence Zahn, University of California
To test the hypothesis of a cultural difference, and to explore the nature of different
DEMOCRATIC INDIVIDUALISM AND ITS CRITICS
George Kateb Department of Politics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
The historical record shows that democracy inevitably engenders individualism. It is also
true that democracy, in reaction, produces antidemocratic individualism. The greatest
students of democratic individualism are Plato and Tocqueville, and they are also its
Collectivism: Concept and Measure - John A Wagner, Michael K. Moch
This article draws attention to the distinction between individualism and collectivism,
indicates its importance for organizational scientists, and develops a questionnaire
measure of individualism-collectivism.
Reconciling Group Selection and Methodological Individualism
TODD J. ZYWICKI, George Mason University - School of Law
Abstract: Methodological individualism underpins economic analysis. In his paper in this
volume, however, Douglas Glen Whitman demonstrates that group selection can be reconciled
with methodological individualism.
Institutional individualism and institutional change: the search for a middle way
mode of explanation - Fernando Toboso, University of Valencia
After noting the lack of enthusiasm of several well-known scholars concerning the adoption
of both methodological holism and methodological individualism, this paper shows
that institutional individualism is a different mode of explanation from both of these.
Perception of individualism and collectivism in Dutch society:
A developmental approach
Louis Oppenheimer, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Individualism and the
Formation of Values - Solon T. Kimball, University of Florida.