Cultural Imperialism, Neocolonialism, Colonialism,
Imperialism is the domination by one or more countries
over others for political and economic objectives. It can be effected by force of arms or
through the economic and political power exercised by state and
Imperialism is sometimes organized in a formal empire,
with a ruling nation and colonized territories, but it can also exist where one nation or
region exercises dominant influence over international trade and investment, patterns of
economic development and mass communication.
Imperialism is the object-less disposition of a state to
expansion by force without assigned limits. Imperialism refers to a political domain
such as the Ottoman, the French, the Russian or the British Empire.
In Liberal Theory, Imperialism is a policy choice, not an
inevitable consequence of capitalism.
Imperialism also arises because increased concentration
of wealth leads to underconsumption.
In Political Theory, Imperialism is simply a
manifestation of the balance of power and is the process by which nations try to achieve a
favorable change in the status quo. The purpose of imperialism is to decrease the
strategic and political vulnerability of a nation.
Imperialism is objectless expansion, a pattern simply learned from the behavior of other
nations and institutionalized into the domestic political processes of a state by a
"warrior" class. This warrior class is created because of the need for defense,
but, over time, the class will manufacture reasons to perpetuate its existence, usually
through manipulation of crises.
The concept of "imperialism" has to be
fundamentally revised in order to be applicable to the modern world, especially to the
economic globalism today. Imperialism for colonies and bloc economy ended with the World
War II, and a fanatic or expansionist nationalism of an advanced capitalist state is
exceptional today. At the same time, we can favorably apply Lenin's concept "the
domestic regime of an imperialist country" to the drastic change of advanced
societies since the end of 1970s. The second stage of the modern imperialism has been
formed since then which reduced and is even now reducing "class compromise" and
"the mass society type of integration". Imperialism should be defined as actions
and impulses of strong states which aim at settlement, prevention and suppression of
problems caused by gaps between the international behavior of enterprises and the
nation-state-system. Imperialism in the past two centuries includes the British free trade
imperialism, the imperialism of the Powers, the first and the second stages of the modern
imperialism. The integrated mass society started in the last quarter of the 19th century
when "the era of imperialism of the Powers" began. The welfare state is a
typical example of integrated mass society, to which Japan with her company-based
integration system belongs. For these twenty years, both types of the integration have
been contracted or fundamentally changed. I argue in this paper that those changes are due
to the emerging second stage of the modern imperialism, which is based on the
multinational enterprises. Multinational corporations depend on their national economies,
but at the same time they weaken the energy and the controllability of their national
economies with their mass integration regimes. Neo-conservatism is a ruling ideology in
the second stage of the modern imperialism.
Goto Michio, A New Stage of Modern Imperialism and the Recontraction of Integrated Mass
Society(Session 7 Globalization as Historical Stage,The Twentieth Century Capitalism :
Reexamination of its History and Review of Methodologies,Special Issue of Commemoration :
Papers Read at the Fiftieth Anniversary Conference of the Political Economy and Economic
History Society of November 1998)
The Sociology of Imperialism, 1918. For it is
always a question, when one speaks of imperialism, of the assertion of an aggressiveness
whose real basis does not lie in the aims followed at the moment but an aggressiveness in
itself. And actually history shows us people and classes who desire expansion for the sake
of expanding, war for the sake of fighting, domination for the sake of dominating. It
values conquest not so much because of the advantages it brings, which are often more than
doubtful, as because it is conquest, success, activity. Although expansion as self-purpose
always needs concrete objects to activate it and support it, its meaning is not included
therein. Hence its tendency toward the infinite unto the exhaustion of its forces, and its
motto: plus ultra. Thus we define: Imperialism is the object-less disposition of a state
to expansion by force without assigned limits. -
The New Imperialism and the War in Iraq - Gill, Stephen.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association
Abstract: A major feature of world order today is the intensified effort to unify global
political, social and economic space under a particular form of Western supremacy (Gill
2003). This effort has been spearheaded by, what theorists across the political spectrum
including neo-Marxists, neoconservatives and Liberals alike have seen as the new
imperialism of the United States. However it is a moot point as to whether the forms of
imperialism are indeed that new. Rather it may be better to characterise as the new moment
as combining are the both old and the radically new. Its lineages stretch back to earlier
moments when the empire of civil society was created and internationalized
along Lockean lines through English colonial policies and at the birth and subsequent
expansion of the modern United States.
Despite the proliferation of US military bases in a global archipelago of extended
coercive power, empire in this sense does not necessarily involve the need for
permanent occupation of territories it more centrally involves mechanisms of
control over territories and populations to make them permeable to the movement of
enterprise and capital, or private power, and subject to the disciplines of capital.
Nonetheless a central characteristic of US imperialism in the early 21st century is how it
has been exercised along with the claim of an absolute prerogative to act as a sovereign
power that stands above all others. Thus whilst on the one hand, US leaders are the
representatives of powers that inhere in the empire of civil society on the other hand
they are also the heirs of the thinking of Karl Schmitt: they retain the power to decree
the exception, thus reserving exceptional power for themselves. This
schizophrenic political logic is manifest in the war in Iraq, which reflects some of the
aims, contradictions and limitations of the new imperialism.
Ambivalent Imperialism: The Missionary Rhetoric of Robert Boyd - Justin Livingstone
Department of English Literature, University of Edinburgh, Literature and Theology 2009
Abstract: Postcolonial Studies has directed much of its critique of British Imperialism at
those informal agents responsible for the cultural crimes of colonial exploitation.
Missionaries have routinely been charged with cultural annihilation and for conjuring up
images of different and distant peoples and places. In keeping with a growing trend in
historical studies, this article revisits the complexity of missionary involvement in
colonialism, and its rhetorical construction of otherness. But I do this in quite a
different way by examining as literature writings produced by missionaries themselves.
Specifically, I analyse the works of Robert Boyd, a missionary in India in the early 20th
century and later convener of Foreign Mission for the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. By
bringing the tools of rhetorical analysis to bear upon such non-literary
texts, I hope to intervene in a debate dominated by historians and theologians. I argue
that the relationship between mission and imperialism is one of ambivalence, an ever
complex dynamic, which refuses the cliché of the bible and the gun as the dual tools of
The Principle of Liberal Imperialism: Human Rights and Human Freedom in the Age of
Evangelical Capitalism - Jeff Noonan
Socialist Studies: The Journal of the Society for Socialist Studies, Vol 2, No 1 (2006)
Abstract: The paper argues that the principle that underlies liberal imperialism is
conceptually incoherent. The Principle of Liberal Imperialism claims that liberal nations
have a duty to intervene in non-liberal nations in response to persistent human rights
violations for the sake of creating the conditions in which the agency of the population
can be realized. The legitimacy of such interventions, however, is rooted in a
presupposition that denies the very agency of the oppressed in whose name the intervention
is justified. In response to this incoherence the paper concludes with the outline of a
materialist conception of agency that prioritises the capability of oppressed populations
to find internal resources of critique and social transformation.
Media Imperialism - Media imperialism revisited: some findings from the Asian case
Kalyani Chadha, Anandam Kavoori - Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 22, No. 4, 415-432
The media imperialism thesis has long argued that the expansion of Western media
production into developing countries has resulted in the domination of their national
media environments and the consequent destruction of their indigenous media production.
This article examines the empirical tenability of this claim with regard to Asia.
Delineating the region's media developments, it identifies forces such as national
gate-keeping policies, the dynamics of audience preference and local competition, all of
which inhibit and restrict the proliferation of Western cultural production. On the basis
of this empirical evidence, the article argues that the claims made by proponents of the
media imperialism thesis seem overstated in the Asian context. In conclusion, the article
suggests that although media imperialism is perceived as a very real danger by
governments, there are in fact several other problematic trends such as the rampant growth
of commercialization and the decline of public broadcasting, the dominance of
entertainment programming and a lack of genuine diversity in program genres and formats
that collectively represent a more significant threat to media systems in Asia.
Beyond Eco-Imperialism: An Environmental Justice Critique of Free Trade - Carmen G.
Gonzalez, Seattle University - School of Law - Denver University Law Review, Vol. 78, p.
Abstract: The article contributes to the trade and environment literature by assessing the
claim that industrialized country proposals to integrate environmental protection into the
WTO trade regime constitute environmental imperialism - the imposition of industrialized
country values and preferences on less powerful nations. This claim is usually based on
two distinct premises. The first is that environmental protection is a luxury that poor
countries can ill afford. The second is that wealthy countries have played a leadership
role in the protection of the global environment. The article questions these assumptions.
It argues that environmental protection is essential to well-being of the poor, and that
wealthy countries have achieved economic prosperity by shifting environmental degradation
to the global commons and to the developing world. The article re-defines environmental
imperialism as the over-utilization of the world's limited pool of natural resources and
waste sinks. It concludes that the industrialized world has indeed engaged in
environmental imperialism and that trade liberalization threatens to accelerate this
process. Developing countries are therefore justified in asserting that environmental
trade restrictions are hypocritical in light of developed countries' failure to address
their own far more ecologically damaging behavior. The article proposes several legal
strategies designed to scale back industrialized countries' over-consumption of the
world's resources and to support grassroots resistance to environmental degradation. The
article calls for close scrutiny of proposals to reconcile trade and environment to make
sure that they promote environmental justice and do not merely reinforce industrialized
countries' economic and political dominance.
Environmental Imperialism: Theories of Governance and Resistance
Dyer, H. C. - Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies
Abstract: The global environmental agenda, alongside the broad neoliberal agenda, may be
viewed by developing states and societies as a neo-imperialist adventure to be resisted.
This paper considers the theoretical parameters of resistance to global environmental
governance and argues that the idea of 'eco-imperialism' reflects the uncertain location
of politics, the ambivalent role of states, and challenges assumptions in the mainstream
study of world politics
Environmental protection or imperialism?
Macmillan Publishing Ltd. Publication Name: Nature
Abstract: Efforts of industrialized nations to impose the same environmental standards
they have established for themselves on developing nations have been viewed as imperialist
in nature. Poorer countries cannot afford to sustain the environmental standards adopted
by developed countries because they do not have adequate resources to undertake the same
environmental protection strategies. Some environmental regulations imposed by the US have
been considered illegal under GATT rules.
Moral Imperialism - In defence of moral imperialism: four equal and universal prima facie
principles - A Dawson, E Garrard - Journal of Medical Ethics 2006;32:200-204;
Abstract: Raanan Gillon is a noted defender of the four principles approach to healthcare
ethics. His general position has always been that these principles are to be considered to
be both universal and prima facie in nature. In recent work, however, he has made two
claims that seem to present difficulties for this view. His first claim is that one of
these four principles, respect for autonomy, has a special position in relation to the
others: he holds that it is first among equals. We argue that this claim makes little
sense if the principles are to retain their prima facie nature. His second claim is that
cultural variation can play an independent normative role in the construction of our moral
judgments. This, he argues, enables us to occupy a middle ground between what he sees as
the twin pitfalls of moral relativism and (what he calls) moral imperialism. We argue that
there is no such middle ground, and while Gillon ultimately seems committed to relativism,
it is some form of moral imperialism (in the form of moral objectivism) that will provide
the only satisfactory construal of the four principles as prima facie universal moral
Universalism and Imperialism: The True-False Paradox of International Law?
Emmanuelle Jouannet, Professor of International Law, Université Paris I
European Journal of International Law 2007 18(3):379-407; doi:10.1093/ejil/chm029
Abstract: This article examines one of the central recurrent questions in international
law: the relation between the universalism of certain of its principles and the
possibility that they are imperialist in nature. The author illustrates how, in this
regard, international law has, from its very origins, been the bearer of a paradox; a
paradox that is, moreover, constitutive of the discipline, and from which international
law cannot escape without itself ceasing to exist as such.
"Economic imperialism": a view from the periphery
Ben Fine - Department of Economics, University of London
Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 34, No. 2, 187-201 (2002)
Edward P. Lazear, a leading neoclassical economist specializing in labor economics, has
recently argued that economic imperialism is successfully colonizing other social sciences
as a result of its own scientific status. His account, however, leaves several lacunae,
including an explanation for the depth, variety, and timing of economic imperialism. These
issues are addressed by emphasizing the importance of recent developments in
micro-foundations in rendering economics more palatable to other social sciences that are
themselves retreating from the extremes of influence of postmodernism and, like economics,
neoliberalism. Further, once questioning the claims of economics as the only rigorous
science, and recognizing the understandable antipathies to it by other disciplines, then
the latter's interest in renewing contact with the economic is liable to see debate emerge
over how to analyze the economy. In this, radical political economy and heterodox
economics can play a part, even though they have been dismissed by mainstream economics
Globalization, Imperialism and Regulation - Deepak Lal
University of California, Los Angeles - Department of Economics; University College London
Abstract: This paper challenges the idea that globalization should be viewed as a damaging
western ideology. Rather than being an expression of US imperialism, the benign process of
globalization is threatened by the unwillingess of the US to maintain its Pax, whilst
simultaneously attempting to legislate the affairs of the world through a form of 'ethical
imperialism'. The argument is developed through an examination of the debate over global
public goods, in particular the maintenance of peace, and the role of international
financial institutions in dealing with recurrent financial crises.
Intellectual Imperialism: Definition, Traits, and Problems
Syed Hussein Alatas - Asian Journal of Social Science, Volume 28, Number 1, 2000
Abstract: Imperialism is not confined to the political or economic aspects of the
historical process. Rather, it is to be considered as a cluster. A phenomenon such as
imperialism is a cluster of different aspects of human undertakings. What is usually
discussed is economic and political imperialism. In this paper, however, we turn to
intellectual imperialism, first describing what it is, and second enumerating the problems
connected with it. Intellectual imperialism has, among other things, resulted in a
displacement of attention from issues that should be of vital concern to Asian and African
societies. The emancipation of the mind from the shackles of intellectual imperialism is
the major condition for the development of a creative and autonomous social science
tradition in developing societies.
The Pillars of American Imperialism:Rationalizing U.S. Cold War Involvement in the
Republic of Korea.
William J. Moon - Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal. 2007. Volume 2 Number 1.
Abstract: Developmental economists refer to South Korea's economic "miracle" -
contrary to North Korea's economic disaster - as a shining example that glorifies the
ultimate victory of American capitalism. It is precisely that logic in which many people
hasten to call direct U.S. interventions in third world nations during the Cold War a
function of imperialism. After all, unlike the European model of imperialism, American
involvement in Korea ultimately benefited both sides. The purpose of this paper is to
uncover the truth, often covered under decades of Cold War rhetoric. For example, while
Americans did not "colonize" Korea, Americans fundamentally altered the
historical fate of Korea. It was precisely the State Department's paranoia of "Red
Expansion" that triggered the division of Korea, which created a breeding ground for
friction that would develop into one of the bloodiest armed conflicts in human history -
The Korean War. In the end, it was the Koreans, among other citizens of the
"hot" regions around the globe, who disproportionately paid the price for the
After Imperialism? - Ernest Mandel - Internet Archive -
New Left Review, #25, May-June 1964, pp. 17-25
Michael Barratt Browns After Imperialism is undoubtedly one of the most important
economic works recently published in English -- indeed probably the most important for
socialist theory and practice. The authors purpose is ambitious: to test
Lenins definition of imperialism against the realities of the British Empire, from
the eve of the industrial revolution up to the present day. In doing so, he provides a
fascinating history of the British Empires rise and decline, and describes the
economic and social transformations both in Britain and in the colonial countries from
which it sprang, and the economic and social changes it has in turn wrought in all the
countries it has touched.
NEOLIBERAL IMPERIALISM AND PAN-AFRICAN RESISTANCE Niels S. C. Hahn
Department of Development Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of
Abstract: Neoliberalism has in the past three decades had a tremendous impact on both
thought and practice throughout most of the world, and has dominated international
development since the early 1980s. Although neoliberalism presents itself as modern and
progressive, it is argued that the underlying ideologies and power agendas have their
origins in the political debates of the eighteenth century and earlier. Through an
analysis of neoliberalism from a world-historical and global perspective, indications are
seen that the international development agenda has more to do with political and economic
interests than with benevolent pro-poor development. This leads to the debate about
redistribution of resources and State-led Development versus Free-market Development,
which is inextricable from the discussion of Liberal Democratic Peace Theory versus
From this perspective it is argued that the notion of democratic peace is used as a
popular seductive rhetoric, to legitimize western military interventions and the
imposition of economic policies in the name of democracy, human rights and free market
economy. In this context, it is argued that neoliberalism cannot be analysed without also
considering inherent links to imperialism and neo-colonialism, which is being resisted by
Tabloid Imperialism: American Geopolitical Anxieties and the War on Terror
By François Debrix, Florida International University (May 2007)
Abstract: Over the past decade, influential American intellectuals of statecraft have
adopted a style of presentation of global political, social, and economic realities that
can be described as tabloid geopolitics. Using a discursive style directly borrowed from
popular television talk-shows, news reporting, and punditry, tabloid geopolitics is
designed to be highly entertaining, sensational, shocking, and overtly simplistic. Tabloid
geopolitics combines commonsensical textual explanations and spectacular maps to produce a
sense of fear and inevitable danger that can lead American audiences to accept certain
truths that geopolitical experts seek to impose. This article traces the path
of these discourses of popular geopolitics from tabloid realism to
tabloid imperialism. After offering an overview of the tabloid geopolitical
genre that takes the reader through the tabloid productions of Robert D. Kaplan, Samuel
Huntington, and Thomas Barnett, this essay explores the place of tabloid imperialism
today, some 6 years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Introducing a recent text by media
pundit Tony Blankley, this article shows how previous tabloid realist and tabloid
imperialist concerns have given way to a mode of panic tabloid imperialism. Mixing prior
tabloid realist and imperialist themes and techniques at a time when uncertainties about
the protracted military occupation of Iraq is starting to turn the American public away
from the war on terror, Blankley's panic tabloid imperialist text is a somewhat desperate
yet, like most tabloid geopolitical discourses, typically hateful, violent and, in the
end, self-defeating attempt at making sense of the place of the West and the United States
in the war on terror.
Cultural Imperialism on the Internet by Seongcheol Kim
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to review the cultural imperialism argument in
terms of the developments of the Internet through some case studies. In trying to explain
problems of global unequal flow of media including the Internet, the cultural imperialism
argument seems to be uniquely helpful. However, because of the structural differences
between the Internet and traditional forms of mass media, it may not be appropriate to
apply the argument to the Internet. Furthermore, it can be said that the cultural
imperialism argument has some limitations in the research of not only the Internet but the
other new interactive electronic media.
Beyond cultural imperialism: Cultural theory, christian missions, and global modernity =
Au-delà de l'impérialisme culturel: la théorie de la culture, les missions chrétiennes
et la modernité mondiale
DUNCH Ryan; University of Alberta, CANADA - History and theory ISSN 0018-2656
Abstract: Cultural imperialism has been an influential concept in the representation of
the modern Christian missionary movement. This essay calls its usefulness into question
and draws on recent work on the cultural dynamics of globalization to propose alternative
ways of looking at the role of missions in modern history. The first section of the essay
surveys the ways in which the term cultural imperialism has been employed in different
disciplines, and some of the criticisms made of the term within those disciplines. The
second section discusses the application of the cultural imperialism framework to the
missionary enterprise, and the related term colonization of consciousness used by Jean and
John Comaroff in their influential work on British missionaries and the Tswana of southern
Africa. The third section looks at the historiography of missions in modern China, showing
how deeply the teleological narratives of nationalism and development have marked that
historiography. The concluding section argues that the missionary movement must be seen as
one element in a globalizing modernity that has altered Western societies as well as
non-Western ones in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and that a comparative global
approach to the missionary movement can help to illuminate the process of modern cultural
Cultural Imperialism : the United States in Latin America or "The Velvet Boot of the
Shameless Hussy" Hixson, Carol G., 1955-; Casto, Jane; Halloran, Jude
Abstract: Cultural imperialism is a vague, undefined term that has recently come into
vogue, primarily in revolutionary circles. Despite the ambiguous, cliche quality of the
phrase, it is of the upmost importance for understanding relations between developed and
underdeveloped countries. One may take any aspect of this relationship, from the economic
to the political, and correctly call it an example of cultural imperialism. All depend on
the importation of foreign ideas, technology, and institutions from developed countries,
with no thought for their appropriateness to the underdeveloped countries. This paper
examines instances of cultural imperialism in Latin America.
German Culture, Imperialism and Planetary Responsibility in the 18th Century
John K. Noyes (Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Toronto)
Abstract: This section is built on the premise that European expansionism forced German
intellectuals to re-think virtually all aspects of intellectual and cultural life in the
18th century. The result was a radically new way of thinking about humanitys place
in the world, and it gave rise to the modern awareness that the world is best viewed as a
unity of diverse cultures, a planetary whole in which all peoples co-exist. German writers
found themselves attempting to re-imagine the planet in terms of the geographical
interconnectedness and shared fate of humanity. They found themselves experimenting with
alternative models of thought to those that promote rampant globalization, dehumanization,
and uneven development for the sake of profit. After the discovery of the world as a
global field for the expansion of capital in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, this
has been the single most important geo-political discovery in the west. This realization
brings with it an entirely new set of responsibilities and obligations, which are readily
identifiable as the most pressing challenges facing the modern world right up to the
present day. They include issues such as the need to respect and foster ecological and
cultural diversity, the harmful effects of imperialism and uneven development, the ethical
challenges of global commerce, and others. In an intellectual arc from Blumenbach and
Herder to Goethe and the Romantics, writers continually found themselves negotiating these
issues, while at the same time re-thinking the most fundamental aspects of their own
culture in relationship to imperialism and colonialism. Contributions to this section will
examine the contradictions and tensions that resulted from an awareness of planetary
culture. Papers will discuss not only the thematic sedimentation of European expansionism
in German letters, but also the aesthetic strategies which writers developed in order to
resolve the contradictions and tensions they saw arising from European activity overseas.
Questions to be addressed might include, for example: how was the concept of Bildung
affected by knowledge of other cultures? In what ways did the perception of uneven
development in other parts of the world impact on the representation of Europes
underdeveloped regions? How did writers move from the concept of humanist Bildung to
global Bildung (Guthke)? What aesthetic strategies did writers develop to come to terms
with contradictions in their concepts of culture, humanity and social responsibility? Etc.
Corporate Imperialism and Globalisation - A panel planned for the confernce of the
International Studies Association, Chicago, February 20-24, 2001 - Fred W. Riggs
Abstract: Globalisation means many things. However, the activities of transnational and
multinational corporations have been central to globalisation and in some sense
globalisation may be 'for' corporations. This panel explores the notion that the new
advance of private corporate interests in the world economy can best be understood through
the concept of imperialism. How is corporate power deployed in the world? How is it
related to 'hegemonic' power interests? What are the spatial and sectoral characteristics
of the new corporate imperialism?
Linguistic Imperialism, linguistic democracy and English language teaching
Mohammad Aliakbari - Ilam University - Iran, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: In response to the assumptions of linguistic imperialism and cultural
homogeneity, especially explained and reacted to in Phillipson (1992), the present article
raises ten contradictory arguments, which put the native speakers hegemony in
international uses of English under question. Advocating cultural awareness, and
intercultural competence, this article calls for the interlocutors mutual
appreciation and cooperation of cultures to strengthen international relationships.
Finally through an attempt to specify the problems with the 'native speakers
dependency view, the article proposes linguistic democracy as the alternative paradigm and
elaborates on recognition of cultural diversity in ELT.
Remarx: Imperialism and the Rhetoric of Democracy in the Age of Wall Street
Antonio Callari - Rethinking Marxism, Routledge, part of the Taylor \& Francis
Group, Volume 20, Issue 4, Number 4, p.700 (2008)
Abstract: This essay argues that the territorial fluidity of the process of surplus
production has been accompanied by a new form of imperialism, resting on a structural
separation of the processes of surplus appropriation and distribution from the processes
of surplus production and a strengthening of the moment of appropriation and distribution
under the control of the U.S. ruling class/es. The essay also argues that this new form
can and should be understood as a form of imperialism sui generis. Contrary to a widely
held view, most notably promulgated by Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century
(namely, that the shift of the axis of power to the sphere of finance heralds a period of
decline of U.S. hegemony), and contrary to the view promulgated by Michael Hardt and
Antonio Negri in Empire (namely, that a territorially centered imperialism is no longer
possible), the essay argues that the new arrangement for the global slurping of surplus
value constitutes a new project of U.S. imperialism with sufficient long-term
possibilities. The essay links this new form of imperialism to the rise of a novel global
crusade for bourgeois democracy on the part of the U.S. and argues that the resistance to
this imperialism requires the Left, and Marxist discourse, to engage on the terrain of the
idea of democracy.
Evaluating the Leninist Theory of Imperialism - Willoughby, John - Science and Society;
59(3), Fall 1995, pages 320-38.
The Leninist theory of imperialism leaves us a problematic legacy. On the one hand, the
theory's emphasis on the evolving forms of capital accumulation remains centrally
important. On the other hand, the Leninist theory attempts to explain a political process
at the wrong level of abstraction. Political domination cannot be reduced to economic
tendencies. Historical contingency is crucially important and the Leninist theory has
consequently become less and less useful since the conclusion of World War II. A
materialist theory of imperial domination in the capitalist era needs to include an
analysis of evolving state structures and the motivations of key personnel within the
state apparatus. Such a methodology cannot yield a simple prediction concerning the future
of imperial conflict. This approach can, however, identify those political responses which
can limit or even defeat the imperial pretensions of a capitalist society's ruling class.
Lenin, Imperialism, and the Stages of Capitalist Development
McDonough, Terrence - Science and Society; 59(3), Fall 1995, pages 339-67.
In addition to its importance in analyzing imperialism, Lenin's "Imperialism, The
Highest Stage of Capitalism" is also a key contribution to the Marxian theory of
stages of capitalism. Lenin's "Imperialism" proposes the concept of a new stage
of capitalism as the solution to the theoretical crisis within Marxism that emerged with
capitalist recovery at the turn of the 20th century. In Lenin's argument, the emergence of
monopoly capital resolved the great depression at the end of the 19th century. This
conception of imperialism influenced the American monopoly capital school and through it
the contemporary social structure of accumulation description of capitalist stages.
Lenin's work is also the direct ancestor of Ernest Mandel's concept of the late capitalist
stage and of the Japanese Uno School's stage theory.
Lenin's Revolution in Time, Space and Economics and Its Implications: An Analysis of
Birken, Lawrence - History of Political Economy; 23(4), Winter 1991, pages 613-23.
The turning point in the history of Marxism was certainly the life and work of V. I.
Lenin. Despite the legitimizing term "Marxism-Leninism," Lenin accomplished a
veritable revolution in Marxist thought in his seminal work on imperialism. This work
helped transform the premises of Marxist thought to such an extent that it can fairly be
asked whether it remained Marxist at all. At the very least, this article argues, Lenin
was part of a revolt against classical Marxism as dramatic as, and in some ways analogous
to, the marginalist revolt against classical bourgeois economics that was taking place
around the same time.
Marxist theories of imperialism: A critical survey
Brewer, Anthony - Second edition, London and New York: Routledge, 1990, pages xi, 300.
Surveys the various accounts of the development of the capitalist world economy that have
been put forward in the Marxist tradition. Revised edition describes the rise and fall of
dependency theory and includes new material on J. A. Hobson. Briefly outlines the
historical record of the emergence and development of the capitalist world economy and
summarizes the elements of historical materialism. Examines the work of a succession of
major theorists in (approximate) chronological order, covering Karl Marx; Rosa Luxemburg;
J. A. Hobson (not a Marxist, but influential to later Marxist writers); Rudolf Hilferding;
Nicolai Bukharin and Vladimir Ilyich Lenin; Paul Baran; Andre Gunder Frank, Immanuel
Wallerstein, and Samir Amin; and Arghiri Emmanuel. Discusses debates about the appropriate
way to analyze social and economic structures in underdeveloped countries. Examines the
recent trends in the development of capitalism and their analysis by Marxists. Considers,
in this context, the multinational corporation, the future of central capital, and the
future of capitalism in the periphery. Brewer is Senior Lecturer in Economics at the
University of Bristol. Bibliography; index.
Postimperialism Revisited: The Venezuelan Wheat Import Controversy of 1986
Stander, Henricus J., III; Becker, David G. - World Development; 18(2), February 1990
Postimperialism is a class-analytical conception of international capitalism with
implications for the behavior of transnational corporations (TNCs) in newly
industrializing countries. It holds, inter alia, that TNCs will tend to act in accordance
with an ideological "doctrine of domicile": corporate managers are disposed to
have each TNC subsidiary behave like a "good corporate citizen" of the host
country where it is domiciled. This prediction runs directly counter to
"imperialism" and "dependency" views of TNCs but has heretofore been
examined only in the resource industries. In contrast, the present study involves the
manufacture in a less developed country of food products from a raw material produced in
the developed world. The study results in a strong confirmation of the "doctrine of
domicile" idea and a refutation of the "imperialist" perspective. In
addition, the observations of political bargaining modalities and outcomes reveal the
nature and limits of TNC political influence over host-government decision-making.
Postimperialism: International capitalism and development in the late twentieth century
Becker, David G. et al., Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 1987, pages x, 252.
Ten articles, four previously published, discuss the concept of postimperialism. Articles
present a class analysis of multinational corporate expansion; development, democracy, and
dependency in Latin America; Peru under military rule; assertive pragmatism and the
multinational enterprise; international finance and state capitalism in Mexico, Brazil,
Algeria, and South Korea; socializing adaptation; international capital and national
development; and postimperialism and the great competition. Concludes with an overall
report on postimperialism, commenting on various theories. Coauthors are Jeff Frieden,
Sayre P. Schatz, and Richard L. Sklar. Becker is Assistant Professor of Government at
Dartmouth College. Bibliography; index.
Imperialism and the anti-imperialist mind
Feuer, Lewis S. - Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1986, pages vi, 265.
Reopens the question of the basic character of imperialism, asking whether imperialism is
a universal theme of history and whether V. I. Lenin and John A. Hobson were mistaken in
thinking it probably was the last stage of a "predatory order." Regards
imperialism as a natural political process and one that is characteristic of all nations
under all political and social systems. Argues that neo-Marxists err when they point to
the relative backwardness of colonial people and blame imperialism on the advanced Western
nations. Cites British imperialism in India, for example, as an era of development and
promotion of democracy. Notes different degrees of emphasis such as "participatory
imperialism" of the United States and England and the authoritarian type of Russia.
Describes progressive imperialism, emphasizing neo-Marxian dependency, consumers'
imperialism, and progressive imperialism. Presents a case study of the Jewish people under
differing varieties of imperialism. Analyzes the imperialist spirit and the anti-imperial
mind. Concludes with a discussion of the end of progressive imperialism, reviewing both
American and Russian models. Feuer is Emeritus University Professor at the University of
Virginia. Name index.
Toward a Neo-Institutionalist Theory of Imperialism, Willoughby, John, Review of Radical
Political Economics; 25(3), September 1993, pages 60-67.
John Hobson, Thorstein Veblen and the Phenomenon of Imperialism: Finance Capital,
Patriotism and War, Edgell, Stephen; Townshend, Jules, American Journal of Economics and
Sociology; 51(4), October 1992, pages 401-20.
Marx's Theory of Imperialism and the Irish National Question, Lim, Jie Hyun, Science and
Society; 56(2), Summer 1992, pages 163-78.
The Modern Theory of Imperialism, Marz, Eduard, Marz, Eduard. Joseph Schumpeter: Scholar,
teacher and politician. Translation, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991,
pages 62-84. Previously published: .
Imperialism and Uneven Development: U.S. Policy in Taiwan and Nicaragua, Medley, Joseph
E., Review of Radical Political Economics; 21(3), 1989, pages 112-17
Imperialism and Social Class (Apologies to Marx and Schumpeter): Imperial Investors in the
Age of High Imperialism, Davis, Lance E.; Huttenback, Robert A., Wagener, H. J., ed.;
Drukker, J. W., ed. The economic law of motion of modern society: A Marx Keynes Schumpeter
centennial. Cambridge; New York and Sydney: Cambridge University Press, 1986, pages
A Methodological Analysis of Dependency Theory: Explanation in Andre Gunder Frank, Ruccio,
David F.; Simon, Lawrence H., World Development; 14(2), 1986, pages 195-209
War, Imperialism and the State System: A Critique of Orthodox Marxism for the 1980s, Shaw,
Martin, Shaw, Martin, ed. War, State and Society. New York: St. Martin's Press: London:
Macmillan Press, 1984, pages 47-70.
Hobson's Theory of Imperialism and the Leninist Critique Thereof, Fitzgerald, Frank T.,
Economic Forum; 13(3), Winter 1982-83, pages 1-24.
Kalecki, Luxemburg, and Imperialism, Darity, William A., Jr., Journal of Post Keynesian
Economics; 2(2), Winter 1979 80, pages 223-30.
Rosa Luxemburg and the Impact of Imperialism, Lee, George, Economic Journal; 81(324), Dec.
1971, pages 847-62.