Sociology Index


Immigration is the movement of peoples into a country or territory. The term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to population movements between the emerging nation states.  Movement of people within countries is generally referred to as migration. The politics of immigration have become increasingly animated because of issues, such as national security and terrorism, particularly in western Europe, on account of the presence of Islam as a new major religion. Though skilled worker immigration has positive economic effects on the native population, but low-skilled worker immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives.

Emigration is migration out of a nation. Immigration is long-term permanent residence by the immigrants. Short-term visits like tourist visits are not considered immigration. Seasonal labour migration, which is typically for periods of less than a year, is treated as a form of immigration. Immigrants commit themselves to becoming a part of their country of residence, whereas the expatriates are only temporarily placed in the host country and plan to return to home country without any acculturation.

Push And Pull Factors Of Immigration

Many theories of immigration distinguishes between push and pull factors.

Push and Pull Factors of Irish Migration: Becasue of Push Factors people migrated from Ireland to the US during the potato famine. Most of the Irish wanted to migrate to the US becasue of Pull Factors of better living conditions, and more resources.

Push and Pull Factors of German Migration: During 1708-1760, conflict, poverty, and persecution promted German immigration to America. Poor Germans even signed contracts to travel to America as indentured servants.

Push and Pull Factors of German Mennonites Migration to Russia: During the 1860s and 1870s, Czar Alexander II of Russia embarked on a major reform campaign, which included the famous emancipation of the serfs in 1861. German Mennonites were to become full-fledged Russians, obviously there was a threat to their autonomous way of life. The loss of educational and political privileges was a major push factor that contributed to the Mennonites’ desire to migrate out of Russia during the 1860s and 1870s.

Push and Pull Factors of Chinese immigrants: The Chines were "pushed” by forces in China and "pulled” by attractions in the United States. The "push” came from natural disasters, internal upheavals, and imperialistic aggressions in during the 1840’s and 1850’s.

Challenges to Children’s Independent Citizenship - Immigration, family and the state. Valerie Leiter, Simmons College, Jennifer Lutzy McDonald, Heather T. Jacobson, Brandeis Univ - Childhood, Vol. 13, No.1, 11-27.
This article explores how recent federal legislation has increased the extent to which US children’s citizenship is dependent upon their parents’ citizenship, by contrasting children who are adopted internationally by US citizens and second-generation US children. Two interconnected phenomena are examined: (1) the broader material and theoretical relationships between children’s membership in families and the state; and (2) the social, political and economic inequalities that exist between these two groups of child citizens.

Immigration, social cohesion and social capital: A critical review - Pauline Hope Cheong, State University of New York at Buffalo, Rosalind Edwards, Harry Goulbourne, London South Bank University, John Solomos, City University, London - Critical Social Policy, Vol. 27, No. 1, 24-49 (2007). There has been an intense public and policy debate about ethnic diversity, community cohesion, and immigration in Britain and other societies worldwide. There has been a growing preoccupation with the possible dangers to social cohesion represented by growing immigration flows and ethnic diversity. Paper proposes a critical framework for assessing the links between immigration, social cohesion, and social capital.

European Integration, Public Opinion and Immigration Policy - Testing the Impact of National Identity - Adam Luedtke, University of Washington, USA. - European Union Politics, Vol. 6, No. 1, 83-112 (2005).
This article empirically investigates the effect of national identity on public opinion towards European Union control over immigration policy. The European Union has recently gained some control over immigration policy, but has faced strong opposition from reluctant national politicians. This study argues that public opinion is an important factor in explaining such reluctance. I propose a hypothesis of national identity to explain public opinion, positing that those who identify with their nation-states are less likely to support European Union control over immigration policy than are those who identify with Europe.

GENDER, ETHNICITY, AND IMMIGRATION - Double Disadvantage and Triple Disadvantage among Recent Immigrant Women in the Israeli Labor Market - REBECA RAIJMAN, University of Chicago, MOSHE SEMYONOV, Tel-Aviv University 
Gender & Society, Vol. 11, No. 1, 108-125 (1997).
This article examines whether recent immigrant women in the Israeli labor market are at a "double disadvantage," first as immigrants and second as womem, and whether and to what extent such disadvantages differ across ethnic and geocultural groups. The analysis focuses on gender differences in employment opportunities among men and women who immigrated to Israel between 1979 and 1983. Data reveal that the double disadvantage of immigrant women is evident with regard to both labor force participation and occupational attainment. Immigrant women are less likely than immigrant men to join the Israeli labor market, and they face much greater occupational loss.

Socio-economic effects of immigration in Greece 
Rossetos Fakiolas, National Technical University, Athens, Greece. Journal of European Social Policy, Vol. 9, No. 3, 211-230. 1999 SAGE Publications.
The undocumented economic immigrants (UEI) in Greece (about half a million since the early 1990s, forming the bulk of the immigration to the country) find jobs because of their wage and job-flexible labour and the rigidities in the Greek labour market. They have positive effects on the GDP through the increase in the supply of labour, and there is evidence that they also contribute to relieving the inflationary pressures on the economy. The 'positive' demographic and social effects of immigration have been limited.

The Construction of the Geography of Immigration as a Policy Problem 
The United States and Canada Compared - Yasmeen Abu-Laban, Judith A. Garber, University of Alberta. Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 40, No. 4, 520-561 (2005).
The release of 2000 U.S. Census and 2001 Canadian Census data sparked significant interest in immigrant dispersal outside major urban centers. This article shows the meaning of immigration settlement patterns is socially constructed by using a comparative textual analysis of newspaper coverage of census findings as well as government documents and think tank studies. The authors argue that in Canada, immigration settlement is interpreted as a national policy problem necessitating federal state intervention, whereas presentations in U.S. print media construct immigration settlement as the outcome of choices made by individual immigrants and, thus, as local policy problems.

Cultural Traits and Immigration: Hostility and Suicidality in Chinese Canadian Students - Pascale Aubert, Marc S. Daigle, University of Quebec, Jean-Guy Daigle, University of Ottawa. Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 41, No. 4, 514-532. 2004 McGill University.
Suicidality has been related to inwardly directed aggression. We compared convenience samples of 89 Canadian students of Chinese origin (CC) and 81 Canadian students from other backgrounds on measures of suicidality, hostility and aggression.