Ideal type is an abstract model of a classic, pure form of social phenomenon. Ideal type is a model concept and does not necessarily exist in exact form in reality. An example of ideal type is Ferdinand Tonnies's dichotomy Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. Tonnies described two opposite, or polar types, of social association, one personal and committed (community) one impersonal and unemotional (society-association). These two formal types then provide a benchmark for the analysis and comparison of actually existing societies. Max Weber also used this method of analysis with his ideal types of bureaucracy, authority and social action.
The Ideal Type and Sociological Theory - Jon Hendricks, University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky, C. Breckinridge Peters, University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky - Acta Sociologica, Vol. 16, No. 1, 31-40 (1973).
Though widely used in the literature of sociology ideal types have received little systematic explication. One of the difficulties is the ambiguity surrounding the usage of types as theoretical or definitional statements.
The Weberian Ideal-type:
Development and Continuities
Tore Lindbekk, Department of Sociology and Political Science, University of Trondheim, Acta Sociologica, Vol. 35, No. 4, 285-297 (1992).
Max Weber's concept of ideal-types is presented against a background of the meth odological controversies at the turn of the century and the conceptions of some recent authors. The changes in Weber's ideal-type approach from his early studies of medieval trading companies to Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft and his studies of world religions are pointed out.
Four ideal-type organizational
responses to New Public Management reforms and some consequences - Tor Hernes, Norwegian School of Management BI, Oslo, Oslo University College -
International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 71, No. 1, 5-17 (2005).
With its dual focus on service and accountability, New Public Management (NPM) accentuates the inherent tension between the logics of service and accountability respectively in local public administration. The present article explores, from an organization theory perspective, possible organizational responses to tensions created by the introduction of NPM. The article identifies four possible ideal-type organizational responses to NPM.