Sociology Index


Homophobia is an uncontrollable fear of homosexuals and Xenophobia is fear of strangers, but the term homophobia is used for a negative and contemptuous attitude to same-sex relationships and to those who participate in them. Homophobia and hate speech threaten democracy and human rights. Stonewall Riots at the Stonewall Inn marked the beginning of resistance against intolerance towards people oriented differently. Insights from queer theory and discourse analysis and Foucauldian poststructuralism offer a reading of homophobia as a form of hate speech. Sports talk radio texts reinscribe dominant ideology thesis and hegemonic masculinity.

Courts and laws on LGBTQ+ community

The Supreme Court in National Legal Services Authority (Nalsa) v. Union of India, recognised the Yogyakarta Principles, which include, the right of an individual to be protected from any medical facility based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. The Supreme Court also examined the mental health of members of the LGBTQ+ community in Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India and emphasized the accountability of mental health professionals who offer mental health care services to the LGBTQ+ community. While recognising that homosexuality is not a mental disorder, it stated that counselling practices should be motivated to support the LGBTQ+ community feel comfortable with their identities. 


Theorizing Homophobia - A series of contemporary theories that have been used to explain homophobia are assessed. Gender panic, queer culture and socio-historical theories generate their own analysis whether 'homophobia', 'heterosexism', or 'heteronormativity'. Current gay and lesbian studies has generated insights into the workings of homophobia. A study of homophobic projects is needed that combines theoretical tools. - Barry D. Adam, University of Windsor, Canada.

A developmental model of homophobia as misogyny. PH.D. Thesis, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology.
Abstract: Reconceptualizes homophobia as misogyny to explain how internalized homophobia develops in men and women. Developmental crime prevention model proposes that traditional identifications of maleness and femaleness generate homophobia. Unconscious fears modulated through later socialization, forming gender roles and conscious fears regarding masculinity and femininity.

The Religious Right and Public Education: The Paranoid Politics of Homophobia. 
Religious Right and policy makers have faced numerous charges that public schools promote homosexuality. Drawing upon the methodology of social historiography this paper examines the use of strategic homophobia by the Religious Right and paranoid politics. - Catherine A. Lugg

Structure and development of homophobia. FIL. Dr., Gotenorgs Universitet. Abstract: This thesis comprises five empirical evidence studies.  

When in Rome: Heterosexism, Homophobia, and Sports Talk Radio 
David Nylund, University of California, Davis. Audience and audience studies suggests that the program reproduces many aspects of traditional masculinity. There are fissures and exceptions to the dominant, hyper-masculine discourse.

Paths to Homophobia - Mary Bernstein. Abstract: Case studies of antigay and lesbian activism as well as on racial prejudice and operationalization of group position and stereotypes which explain homophobia. Mediating concepts clarify contradictory findings within the literature on homophobia.

The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: findings from 3 US cities - RM Diaz, G Ayala, E Bein, J Henne and BV Marin. OBJECTIVES: The relation between experiences of social discrimination, racism and symptoms of psychologic distress.

The Relationship Between Attitudes: Homophobia and Sexism Among Social Work Students 
A study of the relationship between students' attitudes toward women and toward gay men and lesbians found a significant relationship between students' levels of homophobia and sexism. - Beverly Black, Thomas P. Oles, Linda Moore.

Homophobia and Transphobia
By Walter Williams, PhD, Department of Anthropology, University of Southern California. Abstract: Problems facing sexually nonconformist people are similar in terms of homophobic and transphobic prejudices and discrimination.

Homophobia as hate speech in Africa 
Reddy V. - Source: Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, Volume 20, Number 3, 1 August 2002. Abstract: Homophobia as a form of hate speech in the African context.

Homophobia in Health Education: Implications for Practice.
Baker, Judith A. - Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (San Francisco, CA, April 2-6, 1991). Abstract: Defines homophobia and the consequences of homophobia in health education including implications for practice.

The Boys at the Back: Challenging Masculinities and Homophobia in the English Classroom.
Martino, Wayne - Journal Citation: English in Australia, v1 n127-128 p35-50 May 2000. Abstract: Presents two incidents about boys seated at the back of the classroom. Draws attention to how particular versions of masculinity influence how boys learn to relate.

Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence 
Random School Shootings, 1982-2001.
Michael S. Kimmel, Matthew Mahler. There have been many cases of random school shootings in American high schools and middle schools. That the shootings were not a national problem but a series of local problems that occurred in "red states" or counties and that most of the boys who opened fire were routinely bullied and that their violence was retaliatory against the threats to manhood.

Homophobia as an Issue of Sex Discrimination: Lesbian and Gay Equality and the Systemic Effects of Forced Invisibility
Christopher N Kendall. Conference Papers from "Sexual Orientation and the Law." Abstract: Examines the role of heterosexism in reinforcing patriarchal power.

Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men 
Iain R. Williamson. Abstract: Concept of internalized homophobia in research relating to lesbian and gay health.

Homophobia, hate and violence against lesbians and gays in NSW: an overview of some studies. Paul van Reyk.
Discusses the growing political strength of the Australian gay and lesbian communities.

Homophobia and Hostility: Christian Conservative Reactions to the Political and Cultural Progress of Lesbians and Gay Men - Thomas J. Linneman.
Abstract: A steady rise in anti-gay sentiment and activity among many Christian conservatives.

Homophobia and the 'Mathew Shepard Effect' in Lawrence v. Texas 
KRIS FRANKLIN, New York Law School.

Homophobic attitude change. PH.D. Thesis, Indiana State University, Beckham-Chasnoff S.
Abstract: The intensity of homophobia related to its ability to be changed. Results indicated no change in homophobia regardless of its intensity. Men were found to be more homophobic than women. Religiously conservative people were found to be more homophobic than less religiously conservative people.

Homophobia in the 90’s: intolerance and acceptance of alternative lifestyles. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 35-05, p. 1539 - Cullen JM. Abstract: Current demographic and personality variables that may be predictors of homophobia.

Masculinity salience and homophobic reactions: affective and cognitive responses of sex-typed men to a gay male individual. PH.D. Thesis, University of Rhode Island, DAI, Vol. B54-07, p. 3849, 90 pages. Dunstan CD.
Abstract: Research has tended to consider homophobic responses on a global basis. The cognitive and affective responses of homophobia have often been lumped together. 

Internalized homophobia in gay men: an investigation of clinical sensitivity among psychotherapists. PSY.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alamena, DAI, Vol. B57-06. - Edwards LT. Abstract: Given the institutionalized nature of heterosexism and homophobia it is vital to consider the effect that internalization will have on the lives of gay men.

All the wrong places: homophobia, self-esteem, and anonymous sex among gay men. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, MAI, Vol. 35-03, p. 708, 83 pages. - Esparza GG. Abstract: Explores relationships between the psychological adjustment variables of self-esteem and internalized homophobia. Findings indicated that no relationship exists between levels of self-esteem and anonymous sex.