Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Proposed by Abraham Maslow in 'A Theory of Human
Motivation' in 1943. Maslow later included his observations of humans' innate curiosity.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology. Maslow's ideas were about the
responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables
employees to fulfil their own unique potential or self-actualization.
Maslow studied Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor
Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people. According
to Maslow "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can
yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy." Abraham Maslow's book
Motivation and Personality. introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his
ideas in his later other books, particularly 'Toward A Psychology Of Being.'
Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation.
Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
Maslow, A. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature.
New York: The Viking Press.
Maslow, A., & Lowery, R. (Ed.). (1998). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New
York: Wiley & Sons.
Norwood, G. (1999). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Truth Vectors (Part I).
Daniels, M. (2001). Maslows's concept of self-actualization.
The IT Value Hierarchy: Using Maslow's Hierarchy
of Needs as a Metaphor for Gauging the Maturity Level of Information Technology Use within
Competitive Organizations - Robert Urwiler, Vail Resorts, Inc., Broomfield, CO,
USA, Mark N. Frolick, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Information Systems Management, Volume 25, Issue 1 December 2008 , pages 83 - 88
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a hierarchy of progressive IT maturity
using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a metaphor for articulating the increasing value that
can be derived by the application of Information Technology within competitive
organizations. The authors refer to this maturity model as the IT Value Hierarchy. Each
level of the IT Value Hierarchy is described using examples and comparisons to Maslow's
Hierarchy. The model can be used by IT executives as a framework for better explaining and
discussing the value of increasingly sophisticated Information Technology use within the
Exploring the relationship between money attitudes and Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- Mark Oleson - International Journal of Consumer Studies, Volume 28, Issue 1,
pages 8392, January 2004
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between basic human needs and money
attitudes in a university-age cohort utilizing Maslow's theory of hierarchical needs.
Results confirmed relationships between needs and money attitudes. Specifically, all of
Maslow's needs appear to be strongly related to the money attitudes of evaluation and
anxiety. In addition, men's and women's needs are highly correlated with obsession,
budget, anxiety and particularly evaluation. Findings support existing literature and
point to the importance of understanding money attitudes and level of need satisfaction
among individuals and families, particularly from a counselling and educational
Maslow's hierarchy of needs used to measure motivation for religious behaviour
Kenneth Brown; Chris Cullen - Journal Mental Health, Religion & Culture, Volume 9,
Issue 1 March 2006 , pages 99 - 108
Abstract: In order to test Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in relation to religion, the
present study describes the development and initial psychometric validation work on the
Motivation for Religious Behaviour Questionnaire. Data confirm the reliability
and social validity of the new measure. Subsequently, scores on the Motivation for
Religious Behaviour Questionnaire were correlated with scores on a measure of
Maslow's Hierarchy. Contrary to expectations, no significant association was found between
the measures. It is proposed that future empirical work should seek to examine Maslow's
Hierarchy of Needs in relation to other aspects of religion.
approach to child abuse and delinquency (from child abuse and neglect - issues on
innovation and implementation - v 2, 1978, by Michael L Lauderdale, et al
Y Walker - US Dept of Health and Human Services
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is applied to the development of treatment plans for child
abuse and juvenile delinquency cases.
In defining ways in which harm can be inflicted upon children, sociologists can observe a
cyclical nature of child abuse and juvenile delinquency that involves stress, rejection,
the need for survival, and willful abusive actions by perpetrators. Maslow's hierarchy of
needs is proposed as a useful framework for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of
child abuse and juvenile delinquency. This Maslow's hierarchy of needs includes
self-actualization, identity, mastery, affiliation and love, safety and homeostasis, and
survival. Both the cyclical nature of child abuse and juvenile delinquency and maslow's
hierarchy of needs should be considered in treatment planning for families. Three
treatment planning steps are outlined: (1) assess each person in the family in terms of
where that person is in the maslow's hierarchy of needs; (2) assess the family as a whole
in terms of the successful accomplishments of each individual member; and (3) develop
short-range and long-range goals that allow for the sequential mastery of the maslow's
hierarchy of needs for each family member.