Sociology Index

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Proposed by Abraham Maslow in 'A Theory of Human Motivation' in 1943. Maslow later included his observations of humans' innate curiosity. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology. Maslow's ideas were about the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential or self-actualization.

Maslow studied Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people. According to Maslow "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy." Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality. introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas in his later other books, particularly 'Toward A Psychology Of Being.'

Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.

Maslow, A. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: The Viking Press.
Maslow, A., & Lowery, R. (Ed.). (1998). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley & Sons.
Norwood, G. (1999). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The Truth Vectors (Part I).
Daniels, M. (2001). Maslows's concept of self-actualization.

The IT Value Hierarchy: Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a Metaphor for Gauging the Maturity Level of Information Technology Use within Competitive Organizations - Robert Urwiler, Vail Resorts, Inc., Broomfield, CO, USA, Mark N. Frolick, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Information Systems Management, Volume 25, Issue 1 December 2008 , pages 83 - 88
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a hierarchy of progressive IT maturity using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a metaphor for articulating the increasing value that can be derived by the application of Information Technology within competitive organizations. The authors refer to this maturity model as the IT Value Hierarchy. Each level of the IT Value Hierarchy is described using examples and comparisons to Maslow's Hierarchy. The model can be used by IT executives as a framework for better explaining and discussing the value of increasingly sophisticated Information Technology use within the enterprise.

Exploring the relationship between money attitudes and Maslow's hierarchy of needs - Mark Oleson - International Journal of Consumer Studies, Volume 28, Issue 1, pages 83–92, January 2004
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between basic human needs and money attitudes in a university-age cohort utilizing Maslow's theory of hierarchical needs. Results confirmed relationships between needs and money attitudes. Specifically, all of Maslow's needs appear to be strongly related to the money attitudes of evaluation and anxiety. In addition, men's and women's needs are highly correlated with obsession, budget, anxiety and particularly evaluation. Findings support existing literature and point to the importance of understanding money attitudes and level of need satisfaction among individuals and families, particularly from a counselling and educational standpoint.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs used to measure motivation for religious behaviour
Kenneth Brown; Chris Cullen - Journal Mental Health, Religion & Culture, Volume 9, Issue 1 March 2006 , pages 99 - 108
Abstract: In order to test Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in relation to religion, the present study describes the development and initial psychometric validation work on the “Motivation for Religious Behaviour Questionnaire”. Data confirm the reliability and social validity of the new measure. Subsequently, scores on the “Motivation for Religious Behaviour Questionnaire” were correlated with scores on a measure of Maslow's Hierarchy. Contrary to expectations, no significant association was found between the measures. It is proposed that future empirical work should seek to examine Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in relation to other aspects of religion.

Treatment approach to child abuse and delinquency (from child abuse and neglect - issues on innovation and implementation - v 2, 1978, by Michael L Lauderdale, et al
Y Walker - US Dept of Health and Human Services
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is applied to the development of treatment plans for child abuse and juvenile delinquency cases.
In defining ways in which harm can be inflicted upon children, sociologists can observe a cyclical nature of child abuse and juvenile delinquency that involves stress, rejection, the need for survival, and willful abusive actions by perpetrators. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a useful framework for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of child abuse and juvenile delinquency. This Maslow's hierarchy of needs includes self-actualization, identity, mastery, affiliation and love, safety and homeostasis, and survival. Both the cyclical nature of child abuse and juvenile delinquency and maslow's hierarchy of needs should be considered in treatment planning for families. Three treatment planning steps are outlined: (1) assess each person in the family in terms of where that person is in the maslow's hierarchy of needs; (2) assess the family as a whole in terms of the successful accomplishments of each individual member; and (3) develop short-range and long-range goals that allow for the sequential mastery of the maslow's hierarchy of needs for each family member.