Gender and Women
Glass Ceiling Hypothesis, Gender Roles, Books
on Gender and Women, Abstracts, Bibliography, Syllabus, Journals,
Women's Movement, How do we
gender heterosexuality?, Social
Construction of Gender
Women have always had lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies
across cultures and time and it is inversely related to social evolution.
In Leviticus, God told Moses that a man is worth
50 sheikels and a woman worth 30.
Sex is a biological concept, gender is a social construct
specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow
in a society that is dominated by men.
The United Nations has summed up the burden of this inequality:
Women comprise half the world's population, do two thirds of the world's work, earn one
tenth of the world's income and own one hundredth of the world's property.
Gender is the "costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men
and women dance their unequal dance" - Gerda Lerner in The Creation
"of all the ways that one group has systematically
mistreated another, none is more deeply rooted than the way men have subordinated women.
All other discriminations pale by contrast." -
Alan Wolfe in "The Gender Question"
I do not wish women to have power over men; but over themselves.
- Mary Wollstonecraft
I myself have never been able to find out precisely what
feminism is; I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that
differentiate me from a doormat - Rebecca West
World Bank seeks to reduce gender disparities and enhance
women's participation in economic development through its programs and projects. World
Bank summarizes knowledge and experience, provides gender statistics, and facilitates
discussion on gender and development
CGS is Advanced Research Program in Comparative Gender Studies, inaugurated
at Stockholm University, in 1995 It was among the first of eight research programs to be
funded by the Riksbankens Kulturvetenskapliga Forsknings Programmet. Within the general
rubric Comparative Gender Studies: Transformations in Gender, Citizenship, and Welfare
States, the CGS has supported five book projects and nine dissertations. -
Women Working Worldwide. UK organization supports the rights of women workers
in the global economy. - poptel.org.uk
Journal of International Women's Studies - bridgew.edu
Research at Surrey. Older women's working lives. The research aims, first, to
understand the factors influencing the labour force participation and hours of work of
mid-life women.- soc.surrey.ac.uk/research/14.html
Women and the Law - Home. - mason.gmu.edu
Women's prisons places of contradiction, Canadians expect too much from their
prisons for women, says Kelly Hannah-Moffat, a sociology professor at U of T at
Mississauga who studies womens imprisonment and the countrys criminal justice system. -
Study of women incarcerated at the Eddie Warrior Correctional Facility, from
1991 through 1995. By Prof. Phillip D. Holley and Dennis Brewster, Department of
Sociology, Southwestern Oklahoma State Univ. - doc.state.ok.us
Feminist Activist Resources on the Net - This guide is particularly oriented
toward connecting Feminists who are Activists to resources on the Internet which could be
of use. Sarah Stapleton-Gray tries to connect people to other indexes about a particular
topic of feminism, rather than to the resources themselves. - igc.apc.org
How do we
"Heterosexuality is a category divided by gender" So we need to understand what
Weitzer (2000) refers to as the gender disparity in heterosexual deviance,
that is, that male sexual behavior is less subject to social strictures than
female sexual activity.
A sexually active teenage girl, for example, is condemned more strongly than a teenage
boy. Hence, the very foundation of deviance, that is, the stigma or condemnation is
dependent on who is being stigmatized or condemned which, in turn, is based on the sex or
gender of the enactor.
The problem of teenage sex, pregnancy, and subsequent out-of-wedlock births
is widely regarded as a problem almost exclusively of the behavior of girls
The vast majority of sex work jobs are enacted by women for
men. Female sex workers are quintessential deviant women, whereas their customers
are seen as essentially normal men"
Sexual behavior generally and sexual deviance more specifically are
expressions or manifestations of the roles of men and women. It is naive to assume that a
given sexual encounter between a man and a woman means the same thing to the two
participants, has the same consequences, or is interpreted by members of the society in
the same fashion.
Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration. 1994. The glass ceiling: Illusory or real?
Catalyst. 1990. Women in corporate management: Results of a Catalyst survey. New York:
Fierman, Jaclyn. 1990. Why women still dont hit the top. Fortune 122 (3): 40.
Garland, Susan. 1991. Throwing stones at the glass ceiling. Business Week, 19 August, 29.
Gradolph, Rebecca, Michael Hout, Janeen Baxter, and Erik Olin Wright. 1994. The gender gap
inworkplace authority: USA and Soviet Russia compared. Paper presented at RC28 Social
Stratification and Mobility Conference.
Hultin, Mia. 1996. Gender differences in authority attainment: The Swedish case. Paper
presented at RC28 Social Stratification Conference.
Ishida, Hiroshi. 1995. Gender inequality in authority and autonomy in the workplace in
Japan, Britain and the United States. International Journal of Japanese Sociology 4:75-98.
Jacobs, 1992.Womens entry into management: Trends in earnings, authority and values
among salaried managers. Administrative Science Quarterly 37:282-301.
Jaffee, David. 1989. Gender inequality in workplace autonomy and authority. Social Science
Quarterly 70 (2): 375-90.
Morrison, Ann M., R. P. White, E. Van Velsor, and the Center for Creative Leadership.
1987. Breaking the glass ceiling. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Reskin, Barbara, and Irene Padavic. 1994.Women and men at work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine
Reskin, Barbara, and Roos. 1992. Jobs, authority and earnings among managers: The
continuing significance of sex. Work and Occupations 19 (4): 342-65.
Rosenfeld, Rachel A., Mark E. Van Buren, and Arne L. Kalleberg. 1998. Gender differences
in authority: Variation among advanced industrialized democracies. Social Science Research
Scandura, Terri. 1992. Breaking the glass ceiling in the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Labor Womens Bureau.
State of Wisconsin. Task Force on the Glass Ceiling Initiative. 1993. Report of the
governors task force on the glass ceiling initiative. Madison: State of Wisconsin,
Wisconsin Womens Council.
Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald. 1993. Gender and race inequality at work: The sources and
consequences of job segregation. Ithaca NY: ILR Press.
U.S. Department of Labor. 1991. A report on the glass ceiling initiative.Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office.
Wright, Erik Olin. 1989. The comparative project on class structure and class
consciousness: An overview. Acta Sociologica Spring 32 (1): 3-22.
Wright, Erik Olin, and Janeen Baxter with Gunn Bikelund. 1995. The gender gap in workplace
authority: A cross-national study. American Sociological Review 60 (3): 407-35.
Yamagata, Hisashi,Kuang S.Yeh, Shelby Stewman, and Hiroko Dodge. 1997. Sex segregation and
glass ceilings: A comparative static model of womens career opportunities in the
federal government over a quarter century. American Journal of Sociology 103 (3): 566-632.
Janeen Baxter is a senior lecturer in sociology at the University of Tasmania, Australia.
Her research interests are gender inequality in paid and unpaid work, families,
households, and the life course. She is coeditor of Class Analysis and Contemporary
Australia (1991) and author of Work at Home: The Domestic Division of Labour (1993) as
well as numerous research articles.
Erik Olin Wright is the Vilas Professor of Sociology at the University of
WisconsinMadison. His work has mainly concerned the development of the Marxist
tradition in sociology, with particular focus on the analysis of class. His most recent
Counts (1997), contains extensive analyses of the interactions of class and gender.
Books On Glass Ceiling Hypothesis
the Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach the Top of Americas Largest Corporations? (Paperback)
by Ann M. Morrison, Randall P. White, Ellen Van Velsor
This far-reaching study of female executives indicates progress in their status, but not
enough in light of equal employment laws.
Walls and Glass Ceilings : Women's Representation in State and Municipal Bureaucracies
(Dec-30, 2003) by Margaret F. Reid, Brinck Kerr, Will Miller
Reid, Kerr, and Miller provide the first book-length, systematic national analysis of
female representational patterns in state and municipal bureaucracies. They find that
despite three decades of affirmative legislation, women remain underrepresented in the
highest and best-paying positions in administrative and professional posts.
the Glass Ceiling: Careers of Senior Women in the Academic World
by Miriam David (Editor), Diana Woodward (Editor)
Why is it that in many universities the number of women professors can literally be
counted on the fingers of one hand, while the number of men number in the hundreds? Why
are women academics so relatively disadvantaged and men so firmly in control?
In an attempt to find answers to these questions Negotiating the Glass Ceilinggathers
together the unique personal reflects of 16 eminent women working in higher education
across the world.
on the Glass Ceiling : Tap into Your True Strengths, Activate Your Vision, and Get What
You Really Want out of Your Career
by Candy Deemer, Nancy Fredericks
How to play it like a woman and succeed. "Dancing on the Glass Ceiling is a joy of
discovery for professional women." Rikki Klieman, anchor, Court TV
Dancing on the Glass Ceiling contends that women have been shooting themselves in the foot
by trying to play like a man. Reinvent your skills as you move to higher management
positions. Bring more harmony into your career and your personal life. Why try to beat men
at their own game when you can succeed so brilliantly by playing like a woman? Read and
experience Dancing on the Glass Ceiling; learn to celebrate the powers you already
possess. Dancing on the Glass Ceiling is a workshop in a book that helps women transform
their careers and their futures.
How did 'Paramount Pictures' Sherry Lansing, Ogilvy and Mather's Shelly Lazarus, and
Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor make it to the top? Not by "playing like a
man"! As you'll discover in Dancing on the Glass Ceiling.
"Dancing On the Glass Ceiling shatters the old paradigms about women not being able
to truly thrive in the male dominated corporate hierarchy. Dancing On the Glass Ceiling is
not about male-bashing; it's about female empowerment.
"Dancing on the Glass Ceiling" is one of the most unique guides available for
working women. It's a great read and an even better practical resource.
"Dancing on the Glass Ceiling" is somewhat different in that it explores how
women can benefit from their femininity in the workplace: e.g. how women's unique
communication and managerial skills can be harnessed for success. To my knowledge,
"Dancing on the Glass Ceiling" is special in this respect.