Glass Ceiling Hypothesis, Social Construction of Gender, Ecofeminism, Gender Inequality, Gender Gap
Davis, D. S. suggests that this gender socialization begins when we are born. Studies that have been conducted on gender socialization show that parents treat babies differently based upon the sex of the baby. Abuse is also a factor in gender socialization. Yes, men are seen as the general aggressors but women are also in this category. It honestly depends on which gender was seen as dominant through childhood. Everyone experiences some degree of gender socialization and the power differentials often created through this process. Culture is an important mediator in gender socialization.
White, Donat, and Bondurant (2001) note that in order to prevent violence, we must destroy the inequalities in relationships and stop reinforcing gender stereotypical behavior.
You may not be familiar with the concept of “gender socialization”, but it is most likely that you have been influenced by it and in turn passed on your own beliefs about what constitutes gender-appropriate attitudes and behavior to others. Gender socialization begins at birth, intensifies during adolescence and contributes to gender inequalities in education, employment, income, empowerment, and other significant outcomes of well-being during adolescence and later in life. Discussion paper by the UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti and the International Centre for Research on Women. The paper provides a holistic picture of how gender socialization happens and agents, that is, family members, peers, community leaders and cultural and social norms.
Bridging the Gap Between Gender Socialization and Gendered Political Behavior: Political Socializaiton in a Cultural Context.
Abstract: Culture is an important mediator regarding the
roles and activities that women deem appropriate for themselves. Research has shown that
women are more reluctant to engage in what they see as aggressive political behaviors such
as attempts to politically persuade others. However, studies of Latino and African
American women suggest that their specific cultural contexts may serve to provide them
with increased opportunities for political participation and the potential for increased
political power. The specific circumstances of life experienced by these
groups of women may lead them to increased interaction with the political system, thus
leading to an increase in political behaviors. While everyone experiences some degree of
gender socialization and the power differentials often created through this process, this
paper suggests that culture is an important mediator for such experiences.
Ahmed, Zahra. Paper "Bridging the Gap Between Gender Socialization and Gendered Political Behavior: Political Socializaiton in a Cultural Context" presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006.
Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home:
Research and Discussion
Journal article by John F. Peters; Adolescence, Vol. 29, 1994
There has been considerable gender research on inequality in employment, sports participation, television programs, and literature content over the past two decades. However, there is limited research on adolescent gender socialization within the family. Until the early seventies, the family was generally viewed as supporting institutional functions in which females were socialized to be dependent, fragile, unaggressive, sensitive, nurturant, and hesitant to take risks. Males were seen as being socialized in the home to be strong, confident, independent, and daring. Socialization in gender-role behavior is conspicuously absent. This research on gender socialization of adolescents in the home environment focuses upon six common family activities: allowances, parental gift giving, use of the family car, curfew, and chores done in and outside the home.
Gender Socialization in Philippine Child-Friendly Schools
The study examined gender socialization of boys and girls in grades 1, 5, and 6 in selected Philippine public schools under the United Nations Childrens
Fund (UNICEF) strategy to set up a child-friendly school system (CFSS).
The study aimed to see whether and how gender advocacy and concerns are integrated into schools supported by the UNICEF Country Program for Children V (CPC V). CPC Vs programs, among other things, incorporates topics such as gender socialization.