Sociology Index

GENDER ROLES

Books on Gender and Women, Gender inequality, Glass Ceiling Hypothesis

Gender roles are social roles ascribed to individuals on the basis of their sex. The term gender in gender roles differs from sex because it refers to the cultural definition of the gender roles and gender behavior appropriate to members of each sex rather than to those aspects of human behavior that are determined by biology.

Thus giving birth is a female sex role, while the role of infant nurturer and care giver is a gender role and is usually ascribed status to females. The Cult of Domesticity is about gender roles in 19th-century America.

Linkages between Attitudes toward Gender Roles, Body Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Appearance Management Behaviors in Women - Sharron J. Lennon, Nancy A. Rudd, Ohio State Univ.
To examine possible linkages between attitudes toward gender roles, body satisfaction, self-esteem, and appearance management behaviors.

Undergraduate women indicated that women holding nontraditional attitudes toward gender roles had higher self-esteem than women holding traditional attitudes toward gender roles. Body satisfaction and a nontraditional attitude toward gender roles predicted high levels of self-esteem.

Dress and the Female Gender Role in Magazine Advertisements of 1950-1994: A Content Analysis - Jennifer L. Paff, Iowa State University-Ames Hilda Buckley Lakner, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 
To examine changesfrom in gender orientation of roles and dress of women in advertisements and ways in which women's dress has been used in advertisements in the social construction of gender. Roles remained consistently feminine. Good Housekeeping and Vogue have not depicted women realistically. Gendered roles of activity did not vary with traditional gender stereotype of appearance in advertisements across time. A possible reflection of social change related to the postmodern era.

FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND THE CHANGE OF GENDER ROLES: THE CONFLICTUAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTICIPATION AND ATTITUDES IN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON 
Max Haller, Franz Hoellinger 
Gender role attitudes from a comparative perspective using data from eight countries. Women's labour force participation is a necessary concomitant of industrialisation followed by a corresponding adaptation of gender role attitudes toward individualistic-egalitarian values. Gender role attitudes are both related to historically persistent, general societal values regarding family and social stratification. Empirical evidence results did not confirm that the higher the employment rate of women the more the population will have egalitarian gender role attitudes.

Gender Roles and/or Styles in Crisis: An Integrative Analysis of the Experiences of Fathers of Children with Cancer - Mark A. Chesler, University of Michigan 
Carla Parry, National Institute on Aging, University of Michigan 
This integrative analysis views fathers’ experiences through the lens of gender. Fathers’ experiences can be understood as influenced by gender roles and the gendered organization of support systems.

The Relationship between Background Variables and Sex-Typing of Gender Roles and Children’s Chores: The Israeli Case - Liat Kulik, Bar Ilan University
The relationship between sex-typing of adult gender roles and children’s chores in Israeli society. Among both genders, a correlation was found between sex-typing of adult gender roles and domestic children’s chores.

Narratives of Embu Rural Women: Gender Roles and Indigenous Knowledges 
Njoki Wane, Sociology and Equity Studies, OISE University of Toronto, 252 Bloor Street, W M5S IV6 Canada 
Unacknowledged participation of African women in sustaining their communities through their accumulated indigenous peoples knowledges. Gender roles in relation to food processing practices and women's knowledges. The centrality of rural women's gender roles in sustaining their communities.

Achieving Sustainable Agriculture through Recognizing Gender Roles: Some Salient Points 
Punya P. Regmi, Karl E. Weber, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Thailand 
Research on gender roles in rural communities with agriculture as the economic mainstay is needed.

The Effects of Attitudes Toward Family Life and Gender Roles on Marital Satisfaction 
DIANE N. LYE, University of Washington, TIMOTHY J. BIBLARZ, University of Southern California 
That men and women who espouse nontraditional attitudes are likely to be less satisfied than their more traditional counterparts. The effects of attitudes did not vary according to the actual gender roles observed by the couple.

The Consequences of Divorce for Attitudes Toward Divorce and Gender Roles 
PAUL R. AMATO, ALAN BOOTH, University of Nebraska—Lincoln 
Attitudes toward divorce and gender roles. Individuals divorced prior to 1980 were relatively liberal in their gender role beliefs.

Add Men, Don’t Stir - Reproducing Traditional Gender Roles in Modern Wedding Showers 
Beth Montemurro, Pennsylvania State University 
Traditionally, the bridal shower was a gendered ritual for women. The traditional bridal shower is transformed and masculinized, an event men can participate in without stigma to their manliness.

College Women and Sororities - The Social Construction and Reaffirmation of Gender Roles - Barbara J. Risman 
Gender socialization occurs in preadolescence. Socialization processes and the consequent roles be inappropriate to facilitate women's adaptation to a changing social environment.

Leader Emergence And Gender Roles in All-Female Groups - A Contextual Examination 
Amy B. Gershenoff, Roseanne J. Foti, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 
Tests the effect of gender role and intelligence on leadership emergence.

The Psychodynamics of Female/Male Role Differentiation within Small Groups 
Gary Gemmill, Lynn Zoch Schaible, Syracuse University 
Gender role differentiation within small groups in terms of the psychodynamic concepts.

The Bourgeois Family in Nineteenth-Century Spain: Private Lives, Gender Roles, and a New Socioeconomic Model 
Gracia G�mez Urd��ez, University of Zaragoza, Spain 
An analysis of aspects such as the concept of family transmitted by liberalism and the different roles attributed to men and women in the family, society and economy.

Culture, Gender Roles, and Sport 
The Case of Korean Players on the LPGA Tour 
Eui Hang Shin, Department of sociology at the University of South Carolina and department of sociology at Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, Edward Adam Nam, Duke University 
Korean psyche, culture, and family help explain why female Korean golfers on the LPGA are thriving.

Socialization to gender roles and marriage among Egyptian adolescents
Mensch, Barbara S., Barbara L. Ibrahim, Susan M. Lee, and Omaima El-Gibaly. 
Policy Research Division Working Paper no. 140. New York: Population Council. (PDF)
Multivariate analyses indicate that girls' and boys' attitudes do not vary by socioeconomic background and increased schooling does not promote egalitarian attitudes.

THE RISE OF POSTMATERIALIST VALUES AND CHANGING RELIGIOUS ORIENTATIONS, GENDER ROLES AND SEXUAL NORMS - Ronald Inglehart and David Appel 
Abstract: Investigates the relationship between Materialist and Postmaterialist values in industrial societies.

Gender roles, marital intimacy, and nomination of spouse as primary caregiver
SM Allen, F Goldscheider and DA Ciambrone, Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.
Two potential hypotheses for the unequal representation of husbands and wives as spousal caregivers. Multivariate analyses support both hypotheses.

Gender Roles and Labor Use Strategies: Women's Part-Time Work in the European Union 
Tijdens K. G.
Abstract: The nature of female part-time employment in the European Union? The secondary labor market model which ranks fourth in predicting whether a woman will work part-time or full-time.

Gender Roles, Relationship Satisfaction, and Self-Reported Health: A Window into the Personal Lives of Mexicans in the United States and Mexico
Jennifer J. Tovar, Ronald Angel, Maren Andrea Jimenez, University of Texas at Austin - Jorge Caraveo Anduaga.

Differential Fecundity, Markets and Gender Roles - Aloysius Siow
Abstract: Investigates how differential fecundity interacts with marriage, labor and financial markets to affect gender roles.