Sociology Index

Gender and Women

Glass Ceiling Hypothesis, Gender Socialization

Sex is a biological concept, social construction of gender specifies the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow in a society that is dominated by men. The United Nations has summed up the burden of this inequality of condition: Women comprise half the world's population, do two thirds of the world's work, earn one tenth of the world's income and own one hundredth of the world's property. This inequality can be found even in religious literature. In Leviticus, God told Moses that a man is worth 50 sheikels and a woman worth 30. Women have always had lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across cultures and time and it is inversely related to social evolution. Paula England has argued that the 'Gender Gap' in pay is really an expression of the generally devalued social status of women. - England, Paula (1992, Comparable Worth: Theories and Evidence, New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Gender is the "costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance"  - Gerda Lerner  in The Creation of Patriarchy.

"of all the ways that one group has systematically mistreated another, none is more deeply rooted than the way men have subordinated women. All other discriminations pale by contrast." - Alan Wolfe in "The Gender Question"

I do not wish women to have power over men; but over themselves. - Mary Wollstonecraft

I myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is; I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat - Rebecca West

How do we “gender” heterosexuality?

"Heterosexuality is a category divided by gender" So we need to understand what Weitzer (2000) refers to as the “gender disparity” in heterosexual deviance, that is, that male sexual behavior “is less subject to social strictures” than female sexual activity.

A sexually active teenage girl, for example, is condemned more strongly than a teenage boy. Hence, the very foundation of deviance, that is, the stigma or condemnation is dependent on who is being stigmatized or condemned which, in turn, is based on the sex or gender of the enactor.

The problem of teenage sex, pregnancy, and subsequent out-of-wedlock births is widely regarded as a problem almost exclusively of the behavior of girls

The vast majority of  "sex work" jobs are enacted by women for men. "Female sex workers are quintessential deviant women, whereas their customers are seen as essentially normal men."

Sexual behavior generally and sexual deviance more specifically are expressions or manifestations of the gender Roles of men and women. It is naive to assume that a given sexual encounter between a man and a woman means the same thing to the two participants, has the same consequences, or is interpreted by members of the society in the same fashion.

CGS is Advanced Research Program in Comparative Gender Studies, inaugurated at Stockholm University, in 1995 It was among the first of eight research programs to be funded by the Riksbankens Kulturvetenskapliga Forsknings Programmet. Within the general rubric Comparative Gender Studies: Transformations in Gender, Citizenship, and Welfare States, the CGS has supported five book projects and nine dissertations.

Women's prisons places of contradiction, Canadians expect too much from their prisons for women, says Kelly Hannah-Moffat, a sociology professor at U of T at Mississauga who studies womens imprisonment and the countrys criminal justice system.

Study of women incarcerated at the Eddie Warrior Correctional Facility, from 1991 through 1995. By Prof. Phillip D. Holley and Dennis Brewster, Department of Sociology, Southwestern Oklahoma State Univ.

Feminist Activist Resources on the Net - This guide is particularly oriented toward connecting Feminists who are Activists to resources on the Internet which could be of use. Sarah Stapleton-Gray tries to connect people to other indexes about a particular topic of feminism, rather than to the resources themselves.

Gender and Women Journals

The American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law was founded in 1992 to provide a forum for those interested in gender issues and feminist legal studies. In 1998, the Journal expanded its mission to include social policy as well as gender issues.

Columbia Journal of Gender and Law: Founded in 1989 by students at Columbia University School of Law, the Columbia Journal of Gender and Law is a journal devoted to scholarship on the interaction between gender and law.

Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory is a bi-annual publication featuring essays, scripts, interviews and articles on performance from interdisciplinary feminist perspectives.

Gender and Women Abstracts

Female Athletes: Being both Athletic and Feminine - W. Stephen Royce, Janet L. Gebelt, Robert W. Duff , Univ of Portland. Abstract: Because athletics traditionally has been seen as incompatible with traditional roles for women, female athletes have been expected to experience gender role conflict as they attempt to identify with incompatible roles. However, while negative stereotypes of female athletes persist, research has found little such conflict.

Social Structural Model of Women’s Reproductive Rights: A Cross-National Study of Developing Countries
Vijayan K. Pillai and Guang-zhen Wang
Abstract: Using data from 101 developing countries, this study tests a theoretical model of women’s reproductive rights in developing countries. The effects of modernization processes and family planning programs on women’s reproductive rights are examined. It is found that family planning programs have no statistically significant effect on women’s reproductive rights, although they contribute to the decline in population growth. The effect of women’s education on reproductive rights is found to be negative.

Gender Equality and Gender Inequality are the most important factor that affects the achievement of women’s reproductive rights in developing nations. Social and economic development does not directly influence women’s reproductive rights, but functions through the attainment of women’s education and gender equality. Policy implications are discussed.

Examination of gender differences in importance and satisfaction with venue factors at intercollegiate basketball games: Trail, G. T., Anderson, D. F., & Fink, J. S. (2002). Effects on future spectator attendance. International Sports Journal, 6, 51-64.
Abstract: The results of this study indicated that respondents differed on satisfaction with, and importance of, venue characteristics (overall venue cleanliness, concessions, parking, usher behavior, restrooms, audio experience) at intercollegiate basketball games based on team gender and spectator gender.

The Effects of a Politics of Gender And a Politics of Knowledge
Margrit Eichler, Women Pioneers in Canadian Sociology.
Abstract: This article examines the life histories of ten anglophone Canadian pioneer women sociologists: Helen Abell, Grace Anderson, Jean Burnet, Eleanor Cebotarev, Kathleen Herman, Helen McGill Hughes, Thelma McCormack, Helen Ralston, Aileen Ross and Dorothy Smith. All were born before 1930, encountered significant sexism, and found jobs very easily. The simultaneous emergence of the women’s movement and the Canadianization movement led to a politics of knowledge which proved advantageous for both.

EXOTIC DANCERS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIETAL REACTION, SUBCULTURAL TIES, AND CONVENTIONAL SUPPORT - Old Dominion University - Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice - ABSTRACT - We explore the world of female and male exotic dancers. Utilizing Hirschi’s Bonding theory, we look at gender differences in societal reaction, subcultural ties, and conventional support among dancers in a large metropolitan area.

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT UNDER CONDITIONS OF RAPID URBANIZATION - NGO THI KIM DUNG, Research Fellow, Center of Sociology and Development, Institute of Social Sciences in Hochiminh City.
It is no accident that sociologists in Vietnam have during the past decade devoted considerable attention to gender issues, in particular in the role of women in urban and rural areas due to the impact of changes in macro policies. In this article we wish to deal with opportunities and challenges to women in the suburbs of Hochiminh city, a densely populated city overspilling beyond its narrow limits. Social problems pertinent to the change of female occupation in the city's rapidly urbanizing rural suburban areas will be the main theme of this article.

Studies on Women and Gender Abstracts - Formerly Studies on Women Abstracts - Editor: June Purvis, University of Portsmouth, UK.