Sociology Index

Gender and Women

Glass Ceiling Hypothesis, Gender Inequality, Gender Socialization, Gender Roles, Gender Gap

Women have always had lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across cultures and time and it is inversely related to social evolution. Paula England has argued that the “gender gap” in pay is really an expression of the generally devalued social status of women. - England, Paula (1992), Comparable Worth: Theories and Evidence, New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Sex is a biological concept, social construction of gender specifies the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow in a society that is dominated by men. The United Nations has summed up the burden of this inequality of condition: Women comprise half the world's population, do two thirds of the world's work, earn one tenth of the world's income and own one hundredth of the world's property. This inequality can be found even in religious literature. In Leviticus, God told Moses that a man is worth 50 sheikels and a woman worth 30.

Gender is the "costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance"  - Gerda Lerner  in The Creation of Patriarchy

"of all the ways that one group has systematically mistreated another, none is more deeply rooted than the way men have subordinated women. All other discriminations pale by contrast." - Alan Wolfe in "The Gender Question"

I do not wish women to have power over men; but over themselves. - Mary Wollstonecraft

I myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is; I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat - Rebecca West

World Bank seeks to reduce gender disparities and enhance women's participation in economic development through its programs and projects. World Bank summarizes knowledge and experience, provides gender statistics, and facilitates discussion on gender and development

CGS is Advanced Research Program in Comparative Gender Studies, inaugurated at Stockholm University, in 1995 It was among the first of eight research programs to be funded by the Riksbankens Kulturvetenskapliga Forsknings Programmet. Within the general rubric Comparative Gender Studies: Transformations in Gender, Citizenship, and Welfare States, the CGS has supported five book projects and nine dissertations.

Women Working Worldwide. UK organization supports the rights of women workers in the global economy. -

Journal of International Women's Studies -

Research at Surrey. Older women's working lives. The research aims, first, to understand the factors influencing the labour force participation and hours of work of mid-life women.

Women and the Law - Home. -

Women's prisons places of contradiction, Canadians expect too much from their prisons for women, says Kelly Hannah-Moffat, a sociology professor at U of T at Mississauga who studies womens imprisonment and the countrys criminal justice system.

Study of women incarcerated at the Eddie Warrior Correctional Facility, from 1991 through 1995. By Prof. Phillip D. Holley and Dennis Brewster, Department of Sociology, Southwestern Oklahoma State Univ. -

Feminist Activist Resources on the Net - This guide is particularly oriented toward connecting Feminists who are Activists to resources on the Internet which could be of use. Sarah Stapleton-Gray tries to connect people to other indexes about a particular topic of feminism, rather than to the resources themselves.

How do we “gender” heterosexuality?

"Heterosexuality is a category divided by gender" So we need to understand what Weitzer (2000) refers to as the “gender disparity” in heterosexual deviance, that is, that male sexual behavior “is less subject to social strictures” than female sexual activity.

A sexually active teenage girl, for example, is condemned more strongly than a teenage boy. Hence, the very foundation of deviance, that is, the stigma or condemnation is dependent on who is being stigmatized or condemned which, in turn, is based on the sex or gender of the enactor.

The problem of teenage sex, pregnancy, and subsequent out-of-wedlock births is widely regarded as a problem almost exclusively of the behavior of girls

The vast majority of  “sex work” jobs are enacted by women for men. “Female sex workers are quintessential deviant women, whereas their customers are seen as essentially normal men"

Sexual behavior generally and sexual deviance more specifically are expressions or manifestations of the gender Roles of men and women. It is naive to assume that a given sexual encounter between a man and a woman means the same thing to the two participants, has the same consequences, or is interpreted by members of the society in the same fashion.


The Social Construction of Gender (Gender and Society Reader) - Judith Lorber.

Chinese Feminism Faces Globalization (East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture) Book by Sharon R. Wesoky

Sexuality and Gender (Blackwell Readers in Sociology) Book by Christine L. Williams (Editor), Arlene Stein (Editor)

Dancing on the Glass Ceiling : Tap into Your True Strengths, Activate Your Vision, and Get What You Really Want out of Your Career Book by Candy Deemer, Nancy Fredericks

Tangled Routes: Women, Work, and Globalization on the Tomato Trail Book by Deborah Barndt

The Politics of Women's Bodies: Sexuality, Appearance, & Behavior Book by Rose Weitz (Editor)

The Gender/Sexuality Reader: Culture, History, Political Economy Book by Roger N. Lancaster, Micaela Di Leonardo

Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach the Top of Americas Largest Corporations? Book by Ann M. Morrison, Randall P. White, Ellen Van Velsor

Glass Walls and Glass Ceilings : Women's Representation in State and Municipal Bureaucracies Book by Margaret F. Reid, Brinck Kerr, Will Miller

Negotiating the Glass Ceiling: Careers of Senior Women in the Academic World Book by Miriam David (Editor), Diana Woodward (Editor).

Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration. 1994. The glass ceiling: Illusory or real? Canberra, Australia:

Catalyst. 1990. Women in corporate management: Results of a Catalyst survey. New York: Catalyst.

Fierman, Jaclyn. 1990. Why women still don’t hit the top. Fortune 122 (3): 40.

Garland, Susan. 1991. Throwing stones at the glass ceiling. Business Week, 19 August, 29.

Gradolph, Rebecca, Michael Hout, Janeen Baxter, and Erik Olin Wright. 1994. The gender gap inworkplace authority: USA and Soviet Russia compared. Paper presented at RC28 Social Stratification and Mobility Conference.

Hultin, Mia. 1996. Gender differences in authority attainment: The Swedish case. Paper presented at RC28 Social Stratification Conference.

Ishida, Hiroshi. 1995. Gender inequality in authority and autonomy in the workplace in Japan, Britain and the United States. International Journal of Japanese Sociology 4:75-98.

Jacobs, 1992.Women’s entry into management: Trends in earnings, authority and values among salaried managers. Administrative Science Quarterly 37:282-301.

Jaffee, David. 1989. Gender inequality in workplace autonomy and authority. Social Science Quarterly 70 (2): 375-90.

Morrison, Ann M., R. P. White, E. Van Velsor, and the Center for Creative Leadership. 1987. Breaking the glass ceiling. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Reskin, Barbara, and Irene Padavic. 1994.Women and men at work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

Reskin, Barbara, and Roos. 1992. Jobs, authority and earnings among managers: The continuing significance of sex. Work and Occupations 19 (4): 342-65.

Rosenfeld, Rachel A., Mark E. Van Buren, and Arne L. Kalleberg. 1998. Gender differences in authority: Variation among advanced industrialized democracies. Social Science Research 27:23-49.

Scandura, Terri. 1992. Breaking the glass ceiling in the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor Women’s Bureau.

State of Wisconsin. Task Force on the Glass Ceiling Initiative. 1993. Report of the governor’s task force on the glass ceiling initiative. Madison: State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Women’s Council.

Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald. 1993. Gender and race inequality at work: The sources and consequences of job segregation. Ithaca NY: ILR Press.

U.S. Department of Labor. 1991. A report on the glass ceiling initiative.Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Wright, Erik Olin. 1989. The comparative project on class structure and class consciousness: An overview. Acta Sociologica Spring 32 (1): 3-22.

Wright, Erik Olin, and Janeen Baxter with Gunn Bikelund. 1995. The gender gap in workplace authority: A cross-national study. American Sociological Review 60 (3): 407-35.

Yamagata, Hisashi, Kuang S.Yeh, Shelby Stewman, and Hiroko Dodge. 1997. Sex segregation and glass ceilings: A comparative static model of women’s career opportunities in the federal government over a quarter century. American Journal of Sociology 103 (3): 566-632.

Janeen Baxter is a senior lecturer in sociology at the University of Tasmania, Australia. Her research interests are gender inequality in paid and unpaid work, families, households, and the life course. She is coeditor of Class Analysis and Contemporary Australia (1991) and author of Work at Home: The Domestic Division of Labour (1993) as well as numerous research articles.

Erik Olin Wright is the Vilas Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His work has mainly concerned the development of the Marxist tradition in sociology, with particular focus on the analysis of class. His most recent book, Class
Counts (1997), contains extensive analyses of the interactions of class and gender.

Gender And Planning: A Reader Book by Susan S. Fainstein, Lisa J. Servon (Editors).

Dialogue and Difference: Feminisms Challenge Globalization - Book Edited by Marguerite Waller and Sylvia Marcos.

Women and Men at Work - Irene Padavic Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL Barbara F Reskin Univ. of Washington

Description: The Second Edition of this best selling book provides a comprehensive examination of the role that gender plays in work environments.

This book differs from others by comparing women’s and men’s work status, addressing contemporary issues within a historical perspective, incorporating comparative material from other countries, recognizing differences in the experiences of women and men from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Relying on both qualitative and quantitative data, the authors seek to link social scientific ideas about workers’ lives, sex inequality, and gender to the real-world workplace. This new edition contains updated statistics, timely cartoons, and presents new scholarship in the field. It also provides a renewed focus on reasons for variability in inequality across workplaces. In sum, the second edition of Women and Men at Work presents a contemporary perspective to the field, with relevant comparative and historical insights that will draw readers in and connect them to the wider concern of making sense of our dramatically changing world.

The Dress of Women - A Critical Introduction to the Symbolism and Sociology of Clothing - The Gilman classic is available for the first time in book format.

What Are Social Movements and What Is Gendered About Women's Participation in Social Movements? - A Sociological Perspective.

Gutmann, Mathew C. 1996. The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Sanday, Peggy Reeves. 1990. Fraternity Gang Rape: Sex, Brotherhood, and Privilege on Campus. NY: New York University Press.

Wolf, Margery. 1992. A Thrice Told Tale: Feminism, Postmodernism, and Ethnographic Responsibility. Stanford: Stanford University Press.


Brennan, Denise. 2003. What’s Love Got to Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in Sosua, the Dominican Republic. Durham: Duke University Press.

Acker, J. [1973] Women and Stratification: A Case of Intellectual Sexism. AJS 78:935-45.

Acker, J. [1980] Woman and Stratification: A Review of Recent Literature. Contemporary Sociology 9(1):25-39.

Allen, Sheila [1982] Gender Inequality and Class Formation. In: Giddens/Mackenzie 1982.

Anthias, Floya / Nina Yuval-Davis [1993] Racialized Boundaries: Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-Racist Struggle. New York: Routledge.

Arber, Sara / Ginn, Jay [1991a] Gender and Class in Later Life. Sociological Review 39.

Arber, Sara / Ginn, Jay [1991b] Gender and Later Life: A Sociological Analysis of Recources and Constraints. London: Sage.

Bagguley, P. / Mark-Lawson, J. e.a. [1990] Restructuring: Place, Class and Gender. London.

Belkhir, Jean [1994] The `Failure' and Revival of Marxism on Race, Gender & Class Issues. In: Race, Sex & Class 2(1):79-107.

Belkhir, Jean [1995] Integrative Anti-Classism: Race, Gender & Class. In: Race, Gender & Class 2(3):143-66.

Social Structure and Change--Women in Indian Society: by A.M. Shah, B.S. Baviskar and E.A. Ramaswamy. -

Individual Voices, Collective Visions : Fifty Years of Women in Sociology.

Sociology of Religion: Godly Women: Fundamentalism and Female Power.(Review) - Sociology: Women's Studies- Enoch Pratt Free Library - Baltimore, MD.

Web Resources on Women Sociology Interview, with bell hooks List of articles on feminism.

Chamberlyne, P., Cooper, A., Freeman, R., Rustin, M. (eds) (1999) Welfare and Culture in Europe: Towards A New Paradigm in Social Policy, London: JKP.

Connell, R.W. (1995) Masculinities, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Connell (2002) Gender, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hobson, B. (ed) Making Men into Fathers: Men, Masculinities and the Social Politics of Fatherhood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meyers, M.K., Gornick, J.C. and Ross, K.E. (1999) “Public Childcare, Parental leave and Employment” in Sainsbury, D. (ed.) Gender and Welfare State Regimes, Oxford Univ Press.

Pascall, G. and Manning N.(2000) “Gender and Social Policy: Comparing Welfare States in Centraland Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union”, Journal of European Social Policy, vol 10, no 3.

Pred. A. (2000) Even in Sweden, University of California Press.

Pringle, K. (1995) Men and Masculinities and Social Welfare, London: UCL.

Pringle, K. and Harder, M (1999) Through Two Pairs of Eyes: A Comparative Study of Danish Social Policy and Child Welfare, Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.

Sainsbury, D. (ed.) (1999) Gender and Welfare State Regimes, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Soysal, Y.N. (1994) Limits of Citizenshship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe, Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Yuval-Davis, N. (1997) Gender and Nation, London: Sage.