Gender and Women
Ceiling Hypothesis, Books on Gender and Women, How do we
gender heterosexuality?, Gender inequality
Women have always had lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes
varies across cultures and time and it is inversely related to social evolution.
Paula England has argued that the
gender gap in pay is really an expression of the generally devalued social
status of women. - England, Paula (1992), Comparable Worth: Theories and Evidence, New
York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Sex is a biological concept, social construction of gender specifies the
socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow in a society
that is dominated by men.
The United Nations has summed up the burden
of this inequality of condition: Women comprise
half the world's population, do two thirds of the world's work, earn one tenth of the
world's income and own one hundredth of the world's property. This inequality can be found
even in religious literature. In Leviticus, God told Moses that a man is worth 50 sheikels
and a woman worth 30.
Gender is the "costume, a mask, a
straitjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance" - Gerda
Lerner in The Creation of Patriarchy
"of all the ways that one group has
systematically mistreated another, none is more deeply rooted than the way men have
subordinated women. All other discriminations pale by
contrast." - Alan Wolfe in "The Gender Question"
I do not wish women to have power over men;
but over themselves. - Mary Wollstonecraft
I myself have never been able to find out
precisely what feminism is; I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express
sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat - Rebecca West
World Bank seeks to reduce gender
disparities and enhance women's participation in economic development through its programs
and projects. World Bank summarizes knowledge and experience, provides gender statistics,
and facilitates discussion on gender and development
CGS is Advanced Research Program in Comparative Gender
Studies, inaugurated at Stockholm University, in 1995 It was among the first of eight
research programs to be funded by the Riksbankens Kulturvetenskapliga Forsknings
Programmet. Within the general rubric Comparative Gender Studies: Transformations in
Gender, Citizenship, and Welfare States, the CGS has supported five book projects and
Women Working Worldwide. UK organization supports the
rights of women workers in the global economy. - poptel.org.uk
Journal of International Women's Studies - bridgew.edu
Research at Surrey. Older women's working lives. The
research aims, first, to understand the factors influencing the labour force participation
and hours of work of mid-life women.
Women and the Law - Home. - mason.gmu.edu
Women's prisons places of contradiction, Canadians expect
too much from their prisons for women, says Kelly Hannah-Moffat, a sociology professor at
U of T at Mississauga who studies womens imprisonment and the countrys criminal justice
Study of women incarcerated at the Eddie Warrior
Correctional Facility, from 1991 through 1995. By Prof. Phillip D. Holley and Dennis
Brewster, Department of Sociology, Southwestern Oklahoma State Univ. - doc.state.ok.us
Feminist Activist Resources on the Net - This guide is
particularly oriented toward connecting Feminists who are Activists to resources on the
Internet which could be of use. Sarah Stapleton-Gray tries to connect people to other
indexes about a particular topic of feminism, rather than to the resources themselves.
do we gender heterosexuality?
"Heterosexuality is a category divided by gender" So we need to understand what
Weitzer (2000) refers to as the gender disparity in heterosexual deviance,
that is, that male sexual behavior is less subject to social strictures than
female sexual activity.
A sexually active teenage girl, for example, is condemned more strongly than a teenage
boy. Hence, the very foundation of deviance, that is, the stigma or condemnation is
dependent on who is being stigmatized or condemned which, in turn, is based on the sex or
gender of the enactor.
The problem of teenage sex, pregnancy, and subsequent
out-of-wedlock births is widely regarded as a problem almost exclusively of the behavior
The vast majority of sex work jobs are
enacted by women for men. Female sex workers are quintessential deviant women,
whereas their customers are seen as essentially normal men"
Sexual behavior generally and sexual deviance more
specifically are expressions or manifestations of the gender
Roles of men and women. It is naive to assume that a given sexual encounter between a
man and a woman means the same thing to the two participants, has the same consequences,
or is interpreted by members of the society in the same fashion.
Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration. 1994. The glass ceiling: Illusory or real?
Catalyst. 1990. Women in corporate management: Results of a Catalyst survey. New York:
Fierman, Jaclyn. 1990. Why women still dont hit the top. Fortune 122 (3): 40.
Garland, Susan. 1991. Throwing stones at the glass ceiling. Business Week, 19 August, 29.
Gradolph, Rebecca, Michael Hout, Janeen Baxter, and Erik Olin Wright. 1994. The gender gap
inworkplace authority: USA and Soviet Russia compared. Paper presented at RC28 Social
Stratification and Mobility Conference.
Hultin, Mia. 1996. Gender differences in authority attainment: The Swedish case. Paper
presented at RC28 Social Stratification Conference.
Ishida, Hiroshi. 1995. Gender inequality in authority and autonomy in the workplace in
Japan, Britain and the United States. International Journal of Japanese Sociology 4:75-98.
Jacobs, 1992.Womens entry into management: Trends in earnings, authority and values
among salaried managers. Administrative Science Quarterly 37:282-301.
Jaffee, David. 1989. Gender inequality in workplace autonomy and authority. Social Science
Quarterly 70 (2): 375-90.
Morrison, Ann M., R. P. White, E. Van Velsor, and the Center for Creative Leadership.
1987. Breaking the glass ceiling. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Reskin, Barbara, and Irene Padavic. 1994.Women and men at work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine
Reskin, Barbara, and Roos. 1992. Jobs, authority and earnings among managers: The
continuing significance of sex. Work and Occupations 19 (4): 342-65.
Rosenfeld, Rachel A., Mark E. Van Buren, and Arne L. Kalleberg. 1998. Gender differences
in authority: Variation among advanced industrialized democracies. Social Science Research
Scandura, Terri. 1992. Breaking the glass ceiling in the 1990s. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Labor Womens Bureau.
State of Wisconsin. Task Force on the Glass Ceiling Initiative. 1993. Report of the
governors task force on the glass ceiling initiative. Madison: State of Wisconsin,
Wisconsin Womens Council.
Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald. 1993. Gender and race inequality at work: The sources and
consequences of job segregation. Ithaca NY: ILR Press.
U.S. Department of Labor. 1991. A report on the glass ceiling initiative.Washington, DC:
Government Printing Office.
Wright, Erik Olin. 1989. The comparative project on class structure and class
consciousness: An overview. Acta Sociologica Spring 32 (1): 3-22.
Wright, Erik Olin, and Janeen Baxter with Gunn Bikelund. 1995. The gender gap in workplace
authority: A cross-national study. American Sociological Review 60 (3): 407-35.
Yamagata, Hisashi,Kuang S.Yeh, Shelby Stewman, and Hiroko Dodge. 1997. Sex segregation and
glass ceilings: A comparative static model of womens career opportunities in the
federal government over a quarter century. American Journal of Sociology 103 (3): 566-632.
Janeen Baxter is a senior lecturer in sociology at the University of Tasmania, Australia.
Her research interests are gender inequality in paid and unpaid work, families,
households, and the life course. She is coeditor of Class Analysis and Contemporary
Australia (1991) and author of Work at Home: The Domestic Division of Labour (1993) as
well as numerous research articles.
Erik Olin Wright is the Vilas Professor of Sociology at the University of
WisconsinMadison. His work has mainly concerned the development of the Marxist
tradition in sociology, with particular focus on the analysis of class. His most recent
Counts (1997), contains extensive analyses of the interactions of class and gender.