GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT
Gemeinschaft is a form of social integration based on personal ties; more a community than an association as in Gesellschaft. Gemeinschaft is
a German word, translated as community, used by sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies
(1855-1936) to define an ideal type, or model, society where social bonds are personal and direct and there are strong
shared values and beliefs. Extending his
sociological perspective to include a social psychology,
Tönnies conceived of social formations as expressions of the human will.
Characteristic of small scale,
localized societies, it is in contrast to Gesellschaft which refers to complex, impersonal
societies. American sociologist Talcott Parsons
(1902-1979) amplified the contrasts of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft with his pattern variable value alternatives. Gesellschaft is a
form of social integration based on impersonal ties; more an association than a community
as in Gemeinschaft.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft:
Testing the Spatial and Communal Hypotheses - JAMES A. CHRISTENSON
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft often have been and still are equated with the rural-urban
continuum and are employed to describe the "way of life" or the "moral
basis" for rural/urban living. The terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft are concepts
for studying social change. Gemeinschaft describes primary
interactional relationships based on sentiment; while Gesellschaft describes an
interactional system characterized by self-interest.
Finding face between
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft - Marina Terkourafi, University of Illinois.
The terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft were introduced into sociology by Ferdinand
Tönnies to describe two different types of social
organization. A Gemeinschaft is characterized by a network of personal relationships,
common values and ideals, and a strong sense of group belonging. Because in a Gemeinschaft
individual existence is possible only within and via the group, self-regulation prevails
and there is little need for external arbitration. By contrast, in a Gesellschaft
existence is emotionally disengaged. I wish to explore the relationship between
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft in contemporary Greek society.
The Work of Rural
Professionals: Doing the Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft Gavotte - Mellow Muriel
I argue that conventional standards of professional behavior
reflect an urban bias and that rural life problematizes the notion of professionalism.
Those working in rural places are caught trying to dance between the "tunes" of
gemeinschaft and gesellschaft society.
versus 'gesellschaft' skills in social work education and practice. Applying Tönnies'
dichotomy for a model of intercultural communication
Author: KORNBECK Jacob ; Social work education
Tönnies's Gemeinschaft'/Gesellschaft' dichotomy is discussed as an analytical and
explanatory framework for identifying individual social work education modules' relevance
to immigration related and migration related problems in
social work practice. It is claimed that 'Gemeinschaft' (community) skills are especially
needed in these practice contexts, as opposed to the more scientific, legal or
administrative Gesellschaft (state, society) skills. Two empirical
evidence studies from Germany dealing with the necessary competencies for social
workers advising immigrants are drawn upon.
Community and Society:
(GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT) - Ferdinand Tonnies. Gemeinschaft, often translated as community. Gesellschaft often
translated as society. A society is a group of people that form a semi-closed (or
semi-open) system, in which most social interaction are with
other individuals belonging to the group. Gemeinschaft may by exemplified by a family or a
neighbourhood; Gesellschaft by a joint-stock company or a state. Groupings formed around
an essential will are called a Gemeinschaft. The other will is the arbitrary will.
Groupings around the latter are called Gesellschaft. Whereas the membership in a
Gemeinschaft is self-fulfilling, a Gesellschaft is instrumental for its members.
"Out of the
Gemeinschaft: A Urban Community Transitions" - Graves, Erin. Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York
Sociologists have assigned a variety of characterizations
to forms of social relations. Gemeinschaft, typified by a distinctive way of life
contrasts with Gesellschaft relations which are emotionally disengaged. There is a
theoretical gap between how a community transforms a Gemeinschaft community into a
From Gemeinschaft to
Gesellschaft: A Case Study of Student Transition from Elementary School to High School. -
Ahola-Sidaway, Janice A.
Two theoretical perspectives provided the basis for the analysis: symbolic interactionism and Ferdinand Tonnies'
distinction between "Gemeinschaft" (Community) and "Gesellschaft"
(Association). The paper concludes with general reflections on the findings of the study
with respect to the issue of school size, the differing socialization
environments of elementary and high school, attitudes toward work, student relationships,
and staff-student relationships.
Gesellschaft: Testing the Spatial and Communal Hypotheses
JAMES A. CHRISTENSON, University of Kentucky
Toennies introduced the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, concepts for studying social change." Much of rural and urban sociological
theory has looked to these concepts as "ideal types."
Gesellschaft' and 'Québécois Gemeinschaft': Constructing the Boundaries of the Canadian
Multicultural Nation". - Winter, Elke.
There are serious backlashes against multicultural policies throughout the Western world.
In Canada, by contrast, multiculturalism has survived
an international climate characterized by financial recession, fear of terrorism, and security concerns.
Gesellschaft - by Michael Opielka
The Urban Experience:
Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft - Urban Affairs Review.
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: A sociological view of the decay of modern society.