Sociology Index



Fertility rate is the number of children born to women in their fertile years within a given population. Fertility rate is usually expressed as the average number of children born to women over their life time. Fertility rate is not to be confused with the birth rate. Fecundity refers to the potential number of children a woman can have. It is well known that the relationship between the female labor force participation rate and the total fertility rate shifted from a negative correlation to a positive one among the OECD countries in the 1980s.

Fertility Rate is births per 1000 women, based on a specific composition of mothers in the population:
(1) Crude birth rate: number of live births per 1000 of population.
(2) General fertility rate: number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years.
(3) Age-specific fertility rate: number of births to women of a particular age (called cohorts).
(4) Total fertility rate: Average number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime.
(5) Completed fertility rate: number of children actually born per woman in a cohort of women up to the end of their childbearing years.

Why Has Japan's Fertility Rate Declined?
A Empirical Literature Survey with an Emphasis on Policy Implication.
Yusuke Date - Satoshi Shimizutani. Abstract: Japan's total fertility rate declined to 1.32 in 2002, the lowest in its modern era. Such a drastic decline in fertility rate is an exception in the world. What the decrease in birthrate brings is an unbalanced demographic composition between a productive and dependent population. This development might result in a bigger burden per person regarding social security; it might even have a negative effect on Japan's long-term economic performance. This paper surveys the literature on the decline in Japan's fertility rate. We emphasize the policy implications for supporting a spur in Japan's birthrate. First, we describe a long-term trend in Japan's fertility rate and show that the decline after the 1970s was attributed to a decline in the number of marriages, and partly to a decline in households with three or more children.

The impact of a reduced fertility rate on women's health - Jennifer Payne, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Health Canada. Health Issue: Total fertility rates (TFRs) have decreased worldwide. The Canadian fertility rate has gone from 3.90 per woman in 1960 to 1.49 in 2000. However, not many studies have examined the impact on women's health of reduced fertility rates, delayed fertility and more births to unmarried women. This paper presents information on the relation between family size and specific determinants of health.