FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY
Feminism, Socialist Feminism, Gender and Women, Women's Movement, Women's
Liberation Theory, Books
on Gender and Women, Glass Ceiling Hypothesis, Juvenilization of Poverty
What is Feminization of Poverty? Feminization of poverty is the Increasing female proportion of the population on
low incomes or in poverty. Feminization of poverty is the social process in which the
incidence of poverty among women becomes much higher than among men.
Changes in social policy, structure of the family and workplace, social
security provisions, life expectancy and other aspects of society have had the unintended
result of increasing the female proportion of the population on low incomes or in poverty.
Feminization of Poverty : Only in America? Gertrude Schaffner Goldberg,
Feminization of Poverty Only in America: The authors show convincingly that the
feminization of poverty, although most advanced in America, is an international trend.
Their special contribution is the integration of developments in each country's labor
market with gender, social policy, and inequality. The book builds an explanation for the
needless impoverishment experienced by millions of American women and offers a realistic
agenda for its reduction. Michael B. Katz Stanley I. Sheerr Prof of History Director,
Urban Studies, Univ of Pennsylvania.
explanations for the feminization of poverty. : An article from: Journal of Economic
Issues - Steven Pressman. It is well known that women are much more likely to
be poor than men. But the causes of this phenomenon remain a matter of dispute. In a
previous paper, I examined demographic and human capital explanations for the feminization
of poverty and found them both lacking in empirical support. The impact of fiscal policy
on the distribution of income was found to be the main reason that women in the United
States are more likely to be poor than women in other countries.
Feminist explanations for the feminization of poverty Feminization
of Poverty Only in America
The Feminization of Poverty in the United States -
Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Family Factors
MARJORIE E. STARRELS, Univ of Michigan, SALLY BOULD, Univ of Delaware, LEON J. NICHOLAS,
This article details the contribution of gender, race, ethnicity, marital, and parental
status to the feminization of poverty. It suggests that gender, race, and ethnicity
strongly affect poverty rates. However, parenthood interacts with gender in such a way as
to affect only women and to affect particularly White women more than Blacks and
Hispanics. The authors articulate clearly the forces that have generated rapid
feminization of poverty. The analysis takes into account a range of factors that have
contributed significantly to women's poverty. - Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 15, No. 4,
FEMINIST POLITICAL DISCOURSES: Radical Versus Liberal Approaches to the
Feminization of Poverty and Comparable Worth - JOHANNA BRENNER, Portland
Feminist campaigns concerning feminization of poverty and comparable worth are analyzed in
terms of their major policy goals and the arguments typically used to justify those goals.
The differences between liberal and radical discourses on each issue are outlined and the
implications for feminist practice discussed. Conclusion is that situating the issues of
women's poverty and pay equity in a liberal political discourse may strengthen important
ideological and social underpinnings of women's subordination. - Gender & Society,
Vol. 1, No. 4, (1987) © 1987 Sociologists for Women in Society.
Feminization of Poverty and African-American Families: Illusions and
Donna L. Franklin - Affilia, Vol. 7, No. 2, (1992) © 1992 SAGE Publications
The term feminization of poverty was coined to capture the increasing rates of poverty
among mother-only families. More recently, it has been used to draw attention to the
failure of men to provide support for their former wives by emphasizing the enforcement of
child-support legislation. By using the case of African-American families, this article
presents a comprehensive approach to addressing the poverty of single mothers that will
bridge the racial and class divisions among women.
A Contrast of Black and White Feminization of Poverty
Emily Northrop: Southwestern Univ, Eastern Economic Journal, 1994, vol. 20, issue 4
Abstract: The feminization of poverty was most pronounced from 1959 through 1978, and was
more extreme among blacks than among whites. It resulted equally from a deterioration of
female-headed household poverty status relative to that of the rest of the population, and
from a demographic shift into female-headed households. During the period 1978 to 1991
there was little net change in the percentage of the poor living in female-headed
Using Postmodern Feminist Theory to Deconstruct "Phallacies" of
Kathleen E. Nuccio, Roberta G. Sands - Affilia, Vol. 7, No. 4, (1992) © 1992 SAGE
This article demonstrates how postmodern feminist deconstruction can be used to uncover
phallocentric biases in current theories of the feminization of poverty. Deconstructs
statements from leading theorists, and questions the proposed solution to the feminization
of poverty, which is marriage for women and the creation and preservation of good-paying
jobs for men.
Fighting the Feminization of Poverty: Socialist-Feminist
Analysis and Strategy
Wendy Sarvasy, Judith Vanallen, Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 16, No. 4,
Socialist feminism provides a necessary corrective to the strict feminization of poverty
analysis by incorporating analyses of race and class differences among women. We use the
concept of women's dual role to analyze the interconnections among the family, the labor
market and the welfare state, and to examine the ways that gender and class struggles over
the costs of reproduction of labor power are expressed as conflicts over welfare policies.
The Feminization of Poverty?
VICTOR R. FUCHS, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Abstract: This paper uses Census of Population and Current Population Survey data to
analyze the sex-incidence of poverty in 1959, 1969, 1979, and 1984 according to a fixed
standard and another standard that changes with national per capita real income. There was
much feminization of poverty in the 1960s, but in the 1970s, the sex mix of poverty was
relatively constant, and between 1979 and 1984 women's share actually decreased. This
trend in feminization was more severe for blacks than for whites. An increase in the
proportion of women in households without men was the principal source of feminization of
poverty and the principal reason why the trend was more adverse for blacks than whites.
What Does Feminization Of Poverty Mean? It Isn't Just Lack Of Income
Fukuda-Parr S. - Feminist Economics, Volume 5, Number 2, 1 July 1999
This paper challenges the use of poverty incidence among female-headed households as a
measure of feminization of poverty. An alternative framework of human poverty is proposed,
focusing not on incomes but on human outcomes in terms of choices and opportunities that a
Work, women employment and feminization of poverty in Nigeria
Friday Asiazobor Eboiyehi, Center for Gender and Social Policy Studies, Obafemi Awolowo
Adeyinka Oladayo Bankole, Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan Nigeria
O Andrew Eromonsele, Department of Sociology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma,
Abstract: Scholars over the years have engaged in gender discourse that has often time
demonstrated the continuous perpetuation of the inferiority of female gender to their male
counterpart. The continued exposure of the latter either in the traditional or modern
society to deepening poverty has therefore aroused a lot of interest in the discussion of
the reality of the feminization of poverty'. This paper is an attempt at
contributing to the on-going debate on feminization of poverty. The paper focuses first on
the assessment of the poverty profile in Nigeria. Special attention is directed at the
formal world of work and lack of level playing ground for male and female. The paper puts
forward policy considerations that would facilitate the elimination of all gender
colourations in the place of work that perpetuates feminization of poverty. - Gender and
Behaviour Vol. 4(1) 2006: 642-658
Family Structure, Race, and the Feminization of Poverty.
Kniesner, Thomas J. And Others.
Abstract: For women, divorce or giving birth out of wedlock frequently accompanies entry
into poverty, while marriage or remarriage often results in exit from poverty. Since 1970,
the increase in the number of poor women greatly exceeded that of poor men, resulting in a
trend termed the feminization of poverty. In 1984, over 50 percent of black families with
children were headed by women. In white families the figure was 15 percent. The increasing
number of women in poverty stems not from poverty rates within various family structures
but from changes in the distribution of women among family structures. For both races, the
poverty rate of female-headed families is 350 percent higher than that of husband-wife
families. In 1983 black women were twice as likely as white women to be divorced.
The Feminization of Poverty.
Garza, Janet K. Weir
Abstract: After the definition of poverty and the the definition of feminization of
poverty, this paper cited U.S. Census data that includes earnings, family status, and
education attained which were posited as major factors for the economic condition of
women. The section on earnings presented female-dominated occupations, such as
secretaries, teachers, waitresses, and registered nurses, that characteristically had low
salaries along with the salary distributions of white and minority women. The family
status of women included divorced, widowed, separated, and single female heads of
households, and the U.S. Bureau of Census statistics indicated that these households were
rapidly increasing in black and hispanic households. - eric.ed.gov
The Racialization and Feminization of Poverty?
Rebecca J. Emigh (UCLA), Eva Fodor, and Iván Szelényi (Yale University)
ABSTRACT: Poverty is usually studied as a persistent, unchanging social problem that,
hopefully, can be ameliorated through specific social policies. We ask how poverty changes
during an epochal transformation, in this case, the transition from econmies based on
socialist redistribution to those based on capitalist markets. We compare and contrast
poverty and associated social porcess of racialization and feminization in different
countries during this transition. We offer some hypotheses about the relationship between
poverty, markets, and ethnicity in this region and suggest how the evidence from these
countries, as reported in the later chapters, addresses these hypotheses. -
FEMINIZATION AND JUVENILIZATION OF POVERTY: Trends, Relative Risks,
Causes, and Consequences - Suzanne M. Bianchi University of Maryland
This paper reviews trends in "feminization" and "juvenilization" of
poverty showing that the relative risks of poverty increased for women in the 1970s but
decreased for working-age women in the early 1980s. Relative risks of poverty increased
for children between the 1970s and 1990s particularly in comparison with the elderly.
A Different Type of Gender Gap: How Women and Men Experience Poverty
Éva Fodor, Department of Gender Studies, Central European University.
East European Politics & Societies, Vol. 20, No. 1, 14-39 (2006)
While recent surveys do not find that poverty is feminized in post-communist Hungary, this
project explores gender differences in the experience of destitution. One of the major
gender differences in the experience of poverty is that men often find themselves in a
gender role crisis when they are too poor to function as successful breadwinners. Women
tend to feel their roles as caretakers intensified and thus avoid a conflict with
hegemonic ideals of femininity. The goal of the article is to identify four such
strategies, which are used by poor couples to devise livable alternatives to hegemonic
Analysis Of Feminization Of Poverty Through The Denial of Access Of Female
Children to School: Case Of Rural Southeast Anatolia - LEYLA SEN, HISTORY
DEPARTMENT, BILKENT UNIVERSITY, TURKEY
Female children's access to resources is much more limited than the male ones owing to the
cultural values and traditional roles. Policies at the macro level aggravate the female
populations disadvantaged position. In Turkey, impact of the enforced eight-year
compulsory primary education legislation is a glaring example. This legislation denied
female children the right of education, due to the extended graduation age from primary
school. This denial was justified by the cultural, social and religious norms. Female
school age children are forced to live in a narrow vicious circle. They have less chance
for socialization parallel to the increased labor burden and earlier marriage ages.
Schnepf, Sylke Viola (2006) The feminization of poverty in central and eastern
Europe: evidence from subjective data. University of Southampton
Abstract: The transition in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) resulted in an
unprecedented rise of poverty in the region. The term feminisation of poverty
suggests that women had to bear a higher share of transition costs than men. The small
number of studies examining the feminisation of poverty in transition countries is based
on household data assuming income pooling and equal sharing within households. This paper
shifts from household to individual data for estimating the feminisation of poverty.
Results show that also subjective data confirms womens greater poverty incidence in
transition countries. This gender gap in poverty is more predominant in CEE than in OECD
countries. However, results of the cross-sectional data suggest that the feminisation of
poverty has already been a pre-transition phenomenon.
Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare.
Kimenyi MS, Mbaku JM. - South Econ J. 1995 Jul;62(1):44-52.
Female-headed households are at greater risk of slipping into poverty than male-headed
households. Indeed, sex and marital status of the head of household are the most important
determinants of a family's poverty status in the US. Adjusting for differences in
propensities to establish female-headed households, the level of welfare benefits is
indeed an important factor in explaining the variation in the changes in the birth rates
to unmarried women. The use of a weighted measure suggests that welfare benefits have
played a significant role in the feminization of poverty.
The paradox of the advantaged elder and the feminization of poverty. -
Boston University School of Social Work, MA 02215. - Soc Work. 1994 Jan;39(1):35-41
This article explores the emergence of the concepts of the advantaged elder and the
feminization of poverty. The implications of societal perceptions of the advantaged elder
and the feminization of poverty for older women are addressed.
The feminization of poverty: A call for primary prevention
The Journal of Primary Prevention - Barbara Levy Simon
School of Social Work, Columbia University, 622 W. 113 St., 10025 New York, NY
Abstract Three-fourths of all poverty in the United States is now concentrated among women
and their children. The feminization of poverty is fueled by complex cultural and material
forces. To reduce and prevent the feminization of poverty, a systematic campaign that
confronts concomitantly each causal force is necessary.
THE FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY AND WOMENS HUMAN RIGHTS
Valentine M. Moghadam, Chief, SHS/HRS/GED
Abstract: An examination of the feminization of poverty around the world is
approached in terms of the three contributing factors that have been underscored in the
women-in-development and gender-and-development (WID/GAD) literature: the growth of
female-headed households, intra-household inequalities and bias against women and girls,
and neoliberal economic policies, including structural adjustments and the post-socialist
market transitions. The paper confirms that the poverty-inducing nature of neoliberal
restructuring has been especially severe on women. Although the claim that the majority of
the worlds poor are women cannot be substantiated, the disadvantaged position of
women is incontestable. It should be recognized that the women among the poor suffer
doubly from the denial of their human rights, on account of gender inequality and on
account of poverty. Therefore, programs to eliminate or alleviate poverty require
attention to gender inequality and womens human rights.
Female Headship, Feminization of Poverty and Welfare
Mwangi S. Kimenyi, John Mukum Mbaku - Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jul.,
Black Americans and the Feminization of Poverty: The Intervening Effects of
Harrell R. Rodgers, Jr. - Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Jun., 1987), pp.