Sociologists who have dealt with fashion as a mechanism of social control have focused their attention on the relationship between fashion and custom.
People may follow fashion not just to imitate their social superiors, they also want to be "in fashion" capturing the mood of the times.
Fashion as a mode of social control can be structured around 3 issues:
1) Relationship between fashion and social stratification: does fashion mirror the social structure or does it represent an equalising force? is fashion an exculsionary discourse originated by the mainstream Úlite, or does it give voice to marginalised discourses?
2) Functions, ideological meanings, and rationale of the uniform in general, school uniform in particular. (this section will involve a group research project that would provide illustration of ideological critique through critical discourse analysis).
3) Body alterations (tattoo, piercing and cosmetic surgery): is it a discourse of empowerment and control over one's body, or is it locked into the terms of reference of patriarchal ideology.
To what extent fashion is oriented towards innovation (move from custom) and to what extent it is a mechanism of convention?
Fashion and Stratification
Trickle down theory or conspicuous consumption theory regard differentiation and stratification as essential preconditions of fashion. Smelser and Blumer regard fashion as an expression of collective behaviour.
Trickle-down effect or phenomenon occurs when the lower social classes adopt a fashion. When fashion trickles down and are no longer exclusive, it will no longer be desirable to the higher social classes.
Fashion culture theorists like Davis point out that not only do fashions fail to trickle down, but often the inspiration for new fashions start from the street.
Fashion culture theorists like Crane argue that consumer society replaced class with "lifestyle groups".
Fashion culture theorists like Bourdieu and Baudrillard see social hierarchy reflected in subtle practices of education and consumption that underlie apparent social change.
The Emergence of Teenage Girls' Culture Consumers and Luxury Beauty and Business Harness the Power of Influence Social Communication in Advertising Fashion Culture and Identity Fashion Cultures Theories A Matter of Taste Complexions of Fashion In the Culture Society Culture of Narcissism
Wore Bobby Sox : The Emergence of Teenage Girls' Culture, 1920-1945 (Girls' History and
Culture) Book by Kelly Schrum
in Itself: Complexions of Fashion (Theories of Contemporary Culture) Book by Blau
Herbert, Herbert Blau, Herbert Blau
Cultures: Theories, Explorations, and Analysis
Matter of Taste : How Names, Fashions, and Culture Change Book by
of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations
Culture, and Identity
Communication in Advertising: Persons, Products and Images of Well-Being
and Luxury : Consumer Culture in Europe 1650-1850
and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern America (Hagley Perspectives on
Business and Culture)
the Culture Society: Art, Fashion and Popular Music
The case of uniforms
Clothing styles are carriers of a wide range of ideological agendas. For centuries uniforms have been used to impose social identities on more or less willing subjects. This form of social control was increasingly evident in the nineteenth century through the imposition of uniforms and dress codes. To the traditional (e.g. military, religious) form new types of occupational clothing were added replacing traditional forms that hed disappeared. With the simplification of upper and middle class clothing in the course of the nineteenth century, uniforms were used to express social distinctions and status boundaries that could no longer be expressed as blatantly in regular attire. The major categories of uniforms that existed during this period were: uniforms of public servants, occupational clothes of private empolyers, domestic servants, students. Unlike the first three categories, school uniforms, especially for girls, did signify "alternative dress" and "marginal public space".
Crane, Diane (2000). Fashion and its social agendas: class gender and identity in clothing. Chicago University Press.
Simmel, Georg (1904/1957). Fashion. International Quarterly, 10, 130-155. Reprinted in American Journal of Sociology, 62, 541-558.
Blumer, Herbert (1969). Fashion: From class differentiation to collective selection. Sociological Quarterly, 10, 275-291.
Davis, Fred (1991). Herbert Blumer and the study of fashion: a reminiscence and a critique. Symbolic Interaction, 14, 1-21.
Horowitz, Tamar (1975). From Úlite fashion to mass fashion. Archives Europeenes de Sociologie, 16, 283-295.
McRobbie, Angela (1989) Second-hand dresses and the role of the ragmarket. In A. McRobbie (ed.) Zoot suits and second hand dresses: An anthology of fashion and music. London: Macmillan.
Crane, Diane (1999). Clothing behaviour as non-verbal resistance: Marginal women and alternative dress in the nineteenth century. Fashion Theory, 3, 241-268.
Walsh, Margaret (1979). The democratization of fashion: The emergence of the women's dress pattern industry. Journal of American History, 66, 299-313.
Crane, Diane (2000). Fashion and its social agendas: class, gender, and identity in clothing. University of Chicago Press. (pp 87-95).
Abler, Thomas S. (1999). Hinterland warriors and military dress: European empires and exotic uniforms. Oxford: Berg.
Roche, Daniel (1994). The culture of clothing: Dress and fashion in Ancient Regim. Cambridge. (ch. 9: the discipline of appearances: the prestige of uniform).
Ewin, Elizabeth (1975). Women in uniform through the centuries. Totowa: NJ: Rowan and Littlefield.
Maynard, Margaret (1995). Fashioned from penury: Dress as cultural practice in colonial Australia. Cambridge UP.
Joseph, Nathan (1986). Uniforms and nonuniforms: Communication through clothing. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Joseph, Nathan and Alex Nicholas (1972). The uniform: A sociological perspective. American Journal of Sociology, 77, 719-730.
McVeigh, Brian (1997). Wearing ideology: how uniforms discipline minds and bodies in Japan. Fashion Theory, 1, 189-213.
McVeigh, Brian (2000). Wearing ideology: The uniformity of self-presentation in Japan. Oxford, Berg.
Harte, N. B. (1976). State control of dress and social change in pre-industrial England. In D. D. Cleman and A. H. John (eds.) Trade, government and economy in pre-industrial England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
Hunt Alan (1996). Governance of the consuming passions - A history of sumptuary laws. London: Macmillan.
Johnson, Kim K. P. and Lennon Sharon J. (1999). Appearance and power. Oxford: Berg.
Hodder, Ian (ed.) (1989). The meaning of things: Material culture and symbolic expression. London: Unwin Hyman.
Methodological approaches to the study of the ideology of uniforms
Appearance has been repeatedly shown to have a potent and immediate effect on others in a wide range of circumstances. In particular women's appearance seems to have a key role to self and identity. "a woman is made to feel continually insecure about her physical appearance, and simultaneously so dependent on it " (Chapkis, 1986, p. 140). Women (and to some extent men) are willing to go to dangerous lengths and to endure painful procedures to 'improve' and alter their appearance.
The increasing popularity of practices of body modifications such as dieting, tattoing, piercing and cosmetic surgery attests to theimportance of appearance in social relations. But some of the participants in such practices claim to be resisting rather than reifying hegemonic influences.
Cahill Sharon and Riley Sarah (2001). Resistances and reconciliations: Women and body art. In Guy Ali, Green Eileen, and Banim Maura (eds) Through the wardrobe: Women's relationships with their clothes. Oxford: Berg.
Biggs, T. M., Cukier, J., & Worthing, L. F. (1982). Augmentation mammaplasty: A review of 18 years. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 69(3), 445-450.
Gilman, Sander (1999). Making the body beautiful: A cultural history of aesthetic surgery. Princeston University Press.
Haikin, Elizabeth (1997). Venus envy: A history of cosmetic surgery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Davis Kathy (1998). Pygmalions in plastic surgery, Health, 2, 23-40.
Davis Kathy (1997). My body is my art: Cosmetic surgery as feminist utopia, European Journal of Women's Studies, 4, 23-27.
McCorquodale, Duncan (ed.) (1996). Orlan: This is my body...this is my software. London: Black dog.
Orlan (1995). I do not want to look like...: Orlan on becoming-Orlan, Women's Art Magazine, 64, 5-10.
Ribeiro, Aileen (1986). Dress and morality. London: Batsford.
Ince, Kate (1998). Operations of redress: Orlan, the body and its limits. Fashion Theory, 2, 111-127.
Gotch, Christopher and Scutt Ronald (1974). Skin deep: The mystery of tattooing. London: Peter Davies.
Moos, David (1996). Memories of being: Orlan's theater of the self, Art & Text, 54, 66-73.
Madame Chinchilla (1997). Stewed, screwed and tattooed. Isadore Press.
Marcia-Lees, Frances, Sharpe, Patricia (eds) (1992). Tattoo, torture, mutilation and adornment: the denaturalization of the body in culture and text. State University of NY Press.
Mifflin, Margot (1997). Bodies of subversion: a secret history of women and tattoo. Juno.
Rubin Arnold (ed) (1995). Masks of civilization: artistic transformations of the human body. California University Press.
Rufus, C. Camphausen (1997). Return of the tribal: a celebration of body adornment: piercing, tattooing, scarification, body painting. Inner Traditions Intl ltd
Sanders, Clinton R. (1989). Customizing the body: The art and culture of tatooing. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Consuming brotherhood: men's culture, style and recreation as consumer culture, 1880-1930. - In her exploration of the historical relationship between American men and cosmetics, Kathy Peiss outlines how the late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century discourse of heterosexual masculinity denied and covered up men's cosmetics use by defining men's numerous grooming products as toiletries rather than cosmetics or beauty products. This denial of the feminine "other" lurking within men was so sustained and successful that it became a "self-evident statement" of twentieth-century culture that "real men" do not use cosmetics. findarticles.com/cf_0/m2005/n4_v31/20870387/p1/article.jhtml?term=sociology
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