Familism refers to core values of a family type which emphasizes commitment to the family as a unit. Staying together for the sake of the children would be an indication of this familism value. Familism refers to a model of social organization, based on the prevalence of the family group and its well-being placed against the interests and necessities of each one of its members. Familism is part of a traditional view of society that highlights loyalty, trust, and cooperative attitudes within the family group. Familism is found in the bourgeois class family and reflects the cultural belief that it is the family that is the foundation of society and the source of human identification and moral discipline. In his 1958 book The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, Edward Banfield used the term Amoral Familism to describe what he saw as the tendency of poor rural Italians to concern themselves only with the condition of their own family members to the exclusion of outsiders.
The modern conjugal family, is typically described as having a central value of individualism than familism, that de-emphasizes the importance of the family unit. Familism is a cluster of attitudes that emphasizes the relevance of the family for personal and social life, the development of a feeling of duty among the members of the family group, and the belief that to have children is a requirement for personal and social realization.
In familism three main orientations can be distinguished:
Familism as a classical social position;
Familism as a sociopolitical formulation; and
Familism as a psychological re-elaboration.
Familism as a form of system justification: A cross-cultural analysis of the USA and Italy
Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina. and Jost, John.
Abstract: The present study investigated the relations among familism, system justification, and family justification, that is, between familism and the rationalization of the large-scale social system and of the family as a small-scale social system. Familism is a cultural value that describes a strong attachment and loyalty to ones family; it has been shown to include two main types of value orientations: (a) perceptions of relatives as behavioral referents (family norms), and (b) reliance on relatives for emotional help (family support). Familism as the justification of family norms fits Jost and Banajis (1994) definition of system justification insofar as familistic rules apply not only to the family as a system but also to the family as an institution that is linked to the broader society. We hypothesized that the stronger the familism, the greater the tendency to endorse system justification. Two hundred and forty-three students (129 American and 114 Italian) completed a system justification scale, a family justification scale, and a familism scale. As hypothesized, American participants with high system justification scores perceived family norms to be especially strong, but no relationship emerged with respect to the perceived importance of family support. A different pattern emerged in the Italian context, where a stronger perception of family norms was related to a greater tendency to engage in family justification.
A New Familism Scale for Use with Latino Populations
Angel G. Lugo Steidel, Josefina M. Contreras, Kent State University
The goal of this study was to develop an attitudinal familism scale that can be used with relatively less acculturated Latinos and that assesses all relevant aspects of the construct. An 18-item scale composed of original items and adapted items from previous scales was tested on a sample of 124 Latino adults. An exploratory factor analysis revealed the following four factors, accounting for 51.23% of the total variance: Familial Support, Familial Interconnectedness, Familial Honor, and Subjugation of Self for Family. Cronbachs alpha for the scale was found to be .83. Validity analyses revealed significant negative correlations between some aspects of familism and acculturation scores and indicators of exposure to the U.S. culture, confirming previous findings on the subject.
Managers Dilemma: Institutions, Familism, and Trust in Chinas Private Businesses - Ma, Li.
Abstract: The classical principal-agent problem finds more complications in private businesses in transitional China. Incremental processes of deinstitutionalization, partial privatization, delayed legitimization of private property right, and informal consent allowing private wealth accumulationresulted in a high level of uncertainty for private businesses. Relaxation of ideological taboo against wealth accumulation stirred up enormous private initiatives and reinvigorated the Chinese entrepreneurial spirit. However, policy ambiguity put them in an embarrassing positionmarket activities are encouraged but private property rights are not legitimized. They still face overt discriminatory policies in terms of accessing financial capital in an economy where financial institutions are strictly regulated by the state. Most private businesses started up by pooling resources through kinship networks. Familism gains stronger hold in the normative system in the private sector. In these relatively closed systems, managers and owners undergo psychological processes similar to players in a prisoners dilemma game. With both intra-organizational and inter-organizational uncertainty, a vicious cycle of distrust come into being. This phenomenon, as I termed as managers dilemma, the dilemma between choices of trust or distrust, is particular to an economy where strong institutional inertia, organizational memory and familism values interplay and contradict with each other.
Measuring Amoral Familism: A Tentative Approach - Stefano Morandini
Abstract: This paper focuses on amoral familism in public institutions and suggests a way to measure it. Amoral familism may be discussed in terms of its association with public sector corruption or of misallocation of human capital. Here I describe a methodology to estimate familism that I call amoral familism rate. However, the measurement of familism involves several uncertainties concerning the data collection and how to obtain useful indications about the efficiency and the integrity of the public sphere.
Workplace Familism and Psychological Contract Breach in the Philippines
Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Bordia, Prashant
Source: Applied Psychology An International Review, Volume 55, Number 4, October 2006
Abstract: The present study addresses the call for theory-based investigations on workplace familism. It contributes to the literature by proposing and testing the moderating role of workplace familism between psychological contract breach and civic virtue behaviour. We surveyed 267 full-time employees and found main effects of both types of workplace familism (i.e. workplace organisational and workplace supervisor familism) and breach of relational obligations on civic virtue behaviour. Workplace supervisor familism also moderated the relationship between breach and civic virtue behaviour, with the negative relationship between breach and civic virtue behavior stronger when workplace supervisor familism was high. This suggests that employees with a high level of workplace supervisor familism may feel a sense of betrayal and, therefore, respond more negatively to contract breach. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
The role of attitudinal familism in academic outcomes: a study of urban, Latino high school seniors. Esparza, Patricia, Sanchez, Bernadette
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the role of attitudinal familism on Latino high school students' academic grades, effort, motivation, and truancy. Results in this study reveal that having high attitudinal familism predicts fewer classes missed and greater academic effort. Also, when mothers' educational level is low, attitudinal familism is positively associated to students' academic grades.
Hispanic college students' adjustment: The influence of familism, acculturation, and social support - Regina Jean-Van Hell, Boston College
Abstract: Hispanic college students' value of familism, acculturation, and social support were examined in relation to these students' adjustment to college. Ninety-one Hispanic college students completed a questionnaire that included demographics, two scales of familism (Valenzuela and Dornbusch questionnaire) and the Bardis Familism Scale (BFS), the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale (BAS), the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and the College Adjustment Scale (CAS). The analyses of the data revealed that familism attitudes of Hispanic college students were not related to their college adjustment, which was contrary to the expectations of previous research. Levels of familism were not related to acculturation to the Anglo culture or to the Hispanic culture. Consequently, it was not demonstrated whether familism remains constant or changes as individuals become more acculturated to the Anglo culture. This study found that familism in Hispanic college students is not related to social support, as it was expected since the value of familism implies social support. Thus, questions are raised regarding familism and social support among different generations because familism incorporates respect for elders and obedience to parents. Relationships among familism, income, and education were investigated. The findings revealed slight relationships between familism, income and education. Income and father's and mother's education were moderately correlated; father's and mother's education were also moderately correlated. Gender differences in familism were not found.
Acculturation, familism, and alcohol use among Latino adolescent males: Longitudinal relations - Andres G. Gil, Eric F. Wagner, William A. Vega
Abstract: This article advances our understanding of factors associated with patterns and consequences of early alcohol involvement among Latino teens, with an emphasis on how nativity may influence longitudinal relations among variables including acculturation, familism, and alcohol involvement. Following a comparative presentation of alcohol use prevalence rates, the current study offers a culturally founded theoretical model of early adolescent drinking. Results from structural equation modeling suggest acculturation and acculturative stress influence alcohol use primarily through the deterioration of Latino family values, attitudes, and familistic behavior. However, the relationship between acculturative stress and alcohol use differs in important ways depending on the adolescent's birthplace.