Extraversion is a personality characteristic associated with sociability, impulsiveness and aggression. Extraversion has also been linked to physiological factors. The spelling extravertion is rare in general use but is found in technical use in psychology. Extroversion is the most common spelling of the term in the United States. Studies on twins have found that extraversion has a genetic component. Extraversion is good for jobs that require interaction with other people. Individual differences in extraversion and agreeableness affect cooperation in an experimental resource dilemma. Extraversion was generally negatively related to cooperation, whereas agreeableness was generally positively related to cooperation.
People high in Introversion have less social interaction. People high in extraversion have a positive outlook on life and are friendly and energetic. The terms introversion and extroversion were popularized by Carl Jung. Jung, C. G. (1921) Psychologische Typen, Rascher Verlag, Zurich. Carl Jung suggests that everyone has both an extroversion side and an introverted side. Extraversion is also spelled as extroversion. Extraversion is the state of primarily obtaining gratification from outside oneself, whereas introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one's own mental self. Introversion is commonly mistaken for shyness. Introversion is a preference, while shyness stems from distress. Susan Cain also says that both introverts and extraverts enrich society.
The Multifactorial Nature
of Extraversion-Introversion in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality
Inventory - Gary J. Sipps, Ralph A. Alexander, The Univ of Akron,
Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 47, No.3.
The study was designed to test the construct validity of extraversion-introversion and to explore the nature of the concept as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). Responses to the two measures were submitted in toto to factor analysis. Of the seven factors retained, three measures of extraversion appeared. Findings supported the view of extraversion-introversion as a complex construct (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1977; Guilford, 1977; Howarth, 1976). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Extraversion Introversion and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-Judging Perceiving, scales were found, surprisingly, to be factorially valid measures of impulsivity/non-planning.
The Comparability of the Short form Epq-Rindices of Extraversion, Neuroticism, and the Lie Scale With the Epq for a Sample of 190 Student Teachers in Israel - Leslie J Francis, Yaacov J Katz, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 52, No. 3, (1992). This paper compares the Hebrew editions of the Extraversion, Neuroticism and Lie Scales of the short form EPQ-R with the longer and more established indices of the EPQ among a sample of 190 female trainee teachers in Israel.
Putting Personality in
Social Context: Extraversion, Emergent Leadership, and the Availability of Rewards -
Lorne Campbell, University of Western Ontario, Jeffry A. Simpson, John Manning,
Texas A&M University, Mark Stewart, Southern Methodist University.
The present research tested relations between extraversion and emergent leadership among men in situations that differed in potential reward availability. Extraversion should play a key role and more extraverted men should display more group leadership when being evaluated by a woman than either a man or no one. Self-and peer ratings confirmed that more extraverted men were significantly more likely to emerge as leaders, but only in the female-evaluator condition.
On the Social Nature of Personality: Effects of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Feedback about Collective Resource Use on Cooperation in a Resource Dilemma. Exploratory analyses revealed neither interactive effects of Extraversion and Agreeableness nor effects of individual differences in Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect. Together, these results highlight the importance of individual differences in Extraversion and Agreeableness in social dilemma settings. - Sander L. Koole, Wander Jager, Agnes E. van den Berg, Charles A. J. Vlek, Willem K. B. Hofstee, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 27, No. 3, (2001).
The Geographic Distribution of Big Five Personality Traits - Patterns and Profiles
of Human Self-Description Across 56 Nations, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 2, (2007).
The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order
personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and
The role of conscientiousness and extraversion in affecting the relationship between perceptions of group potency and volunteer group member selling behavior: An interaction perspective - Mitchell Neubert, Baylor University, Simon Taggar, Wilfrid Laurier University, Steven Cady, Bowling Green State University, Human Relations, Vol. 59, No. 9.
We studied 284 volunteers, loosely coupled in groups, selling memberships in a non-profit organization. Consistent with economic models of altruism, we found individual perceptions of group potency to be negatively related to individual selling behavior. Furthermore, individual members perceptions of group potency were found to interact with two personality traits (conscientiousness and extraversion) to influence individual selling behavior.
Research Note: Personality and Music Preference: Extraversion and Excitement Seeking or Openness to Experience? Stephen J. Dollinger, Dept. of Psychology, Southern Illinois Univ. Psychology of Music, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1993.
The NEO Personality Inventory and an abbreviated version of the Little and Zuckerman (1986) Music Preference questionnaire were administered to university students to test the relation of openness and extraversion to music preferences. Replicating the findings of other researchers, extraversion was positively related to one kind of music with high arousal properties like jazz, and excitement seeking to another like hard rock.