Extraversion is a personality characteristic associated
with sociability, impulsiveness and aggression. Extraversion has also been linked to
physiological factors. Studies on twins have found that extraversion and introversion have
a genetic component.
On the Social Nature of Personality:
Effects of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Feedback about Collective Resource Use on
Cooperation in a Resource Dilemma.
How individual differences in Extraversion and
Agreeableness affect cooperation in an experimental resource dilemma. Manipulated feedback
indicated either that the common resource was being used at a sustainable rate or that it
was being rapidly depleted.
As predicted, Extraversion was generally negatively related
to cooperation, whereas Agreeableness was generally positively related to cooperation.
Whereas individuals high in Extraversion and individuals low in Agreeableness were
unresponsive to feedback regarding collective resource use, individuals low in
Extraversion and individuals high in Agreeableness exercised more self-restraint when the
common resource was severely threatened.
Exploratory analyses revealed neither interactive effects
of Extraversion and Agreeableness nor effects of individual differences in
Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect. Together, these results highlight
the importance of individual differences in Extraversion and Agreeableness in social
dilemma settings. - Sander L. Koole, Wander Jager, Agnes E. van den Berg,
Charles A. J. Vlek, Willem K. B. Hofstee, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol.
27, No. 3, (2001)
The Comparability of the Short form Epq-Rindices of
Extraversion, Neuroticism, and the Lie Scale With the Epq for a Sample of 190 Student
Teachers in Israel
Leslie J Francis, REVD DR, Mansel Jones Fellow Trinity College Carmarthen Dyfed.
Yaacov J Katz, Director, Division of Counselling School of Education Bar-Ilan University.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 52, No. 3, (1992)
This paper compares the Hebrew editions of the Extraversion, Neuroticism and Lie Scales of
the short form EPQ-R with the longer and more established indices of the EPQ among a
sample of 190 female trainee teachers in Israel. The findings support the comparability of
the two editions of these indices for the sample.
Putting Personality in Social Context:
Extraversion, Emergent Leadership, and the Availability of Rewards - Lorne
Campbell, University of Western Ontario, Jeffry A. Simpson, John Manning, Texas
A&M University, Mark Stewart, Southern Methodist University - Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 12, 1547-1559 (2003)
The present research tested relations between extraversion and emergent leadership among
men in situations that differed in potential reward availability. Four-person groups of
men engaged in a Leaderless Group Discussion (LGD) task and were randomly assigned to be
evaluated by an attractive female observer, an attractive male observer, or not be
evaluated. Evolutionary theories suggest that impressing a female evaluator in an
intrasexually competitive situation should hold greater reward potential for men than
impressing either a male evaluator or no evaluator. Accordingly, more extraverted men (who
are more sensitive to reward cues) should display more group leadership when being
evaluated by a woman than either a man or no one. Self-and peer ratings confirmed that
more extraverted men were significantly more likely to emerge as leaders, but only in the
The Geographic Distribution of Big Five Personality Traits - Patterns and Profiles
of Human Self-Description Across 56 Nations
David P. Schmitt, Bradley University, Jüri Allik, University of Tartu, Robert R. McCrae,
National Institute of Aging, Verónica Benet-Martínez, University of California,
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 2, (2007)
The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order
personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and
The Multifactorial Nature of
Extraversion-Introversion in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality
Inventory - Gary J. Sipps, Ralph A. Alexander, The Univ of Akron,
Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 47, No.3
The study was designed to test the construct validity of extraversion-introversion and to
explore the nature of the concept as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). The psychometric properties of the MBTI have
been inadequately studied, whereas those of the EPI have been investigated extensively.
Responses to the two measures were submitted in toto to factor analysis. Of the seven
factors retained, three measures of extraversion appeared: Factor 2 (a sociability
component), Factor 4 (an impulsivity/non-planning component), and Factor 7 (a
liveliness/risk-taking/jocularity component). Findings supported the view of
extraversion-introversion as a complex construct (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1977; Guilford,
1977; Howarth, 1976). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Extraversion Introversion
(MBTI-EI) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-Judging Perceiving (MBTI-JP), scales were
found, surprisingly, to be factorially valid measures of impulsivity/non-planning.
The role of conscientiousness and extraversion in affecting the relationship
between perceptions of group potency and volunteer group member selling behavior: An
interactionist perspective - Mitchell Neubert, Baylor University, USA, Simon
Taggar, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada, Steven Cady, Bowling Green State University,
Human Relations, Vol. 59, No. 9, 1235-1260 (2006)
We studied 284 volunteers, loosely coupled in groups (i.e. low task interdependence, high
outcome interdependence), selling memberships in a non-profit organization. Consistent
with economic models of altruism, we found individual perceptions of group potency to be
negatively related to individual selling behavior. Furthermore, individual members
perceptions of group potency were found to interact with two personality traits
(conscientiousness and extraversion) to influence individual selling behavior.
Research Note: Personality and Music Preference: Extraversion and Excitement
Seeking or Openness to Experience? Stephen J. Dollinger, Dept. of
Psychology, Southern Illinois Univ.
Psychology of Music, Vol. 21, No. 1, 73-77 (1993) © 1993 Society for Education, Music,
and Psychology Research
The NEO Personality Inventory and an abbreviated version of the Little and Zuckerman
(1986) Music Preference questionnaire were administered to university students to test the
relation of openness and extraversion to music preferences. Replicating the findings of
other researchers, extraversion was positively related to one kind of music with high
arousal properties (jazz), and excitement seeking to another (hard rock).