Sociology Index


Esteem refers to honor or positive evaluation within a group or community. Some sociologists have thought of esteem as a form of social status which can operate independently of income, wealth or power. Self-esteem is high regard for oneself. Self-esteem can also mean good opinion of oneself. 

Relationship of Gender, Self-Esteem, Social Class, and Racial Identity to Depression in Blacks. Maria B. Munford - Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 157-174 (1994) Previous research has indicated that depression, the most common mental illness, can be related to such factors as gender, self-esteem, social class, racism and racial identity. Results showed that higher levels of depression were associated with lower levels of self-esteem. No significant gender differences were found in levels of self-esteem and depression, and no significant social class differences were found in levels of depression.

Untangling the Links between Narcissism and Self-esteem: A Theoretical and Empirical Evidence Review
By Jennifer K. Bosson, Chad E. Lakey, W. Keith Campbell, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Christian H. Jordan and Michael H. Kernis
Abstract: The links among narcissism, explicit (deliberate, controllable) self-esteem, and implicit (automatic, uncontrollable) self-esteem are unclear despite numerous attempts to illuminate these links. Some investigations suggest that narcissism reflects high explicit self-esteem that masks low implicit self-esteem, but other investigations fail to replicate this pattern.