Esteem refers to honor or positive evaluation within a group or community. Some sociologists have thought of esteem as a form of social status which can operate independently of income, wealth or power. Self-esteem is high regard for oneself. Self-esteem can also mean good opinion of oneself.
Relationship of Gender, Self-Esteem, Social
Class, and Racial Identity to Depression in
Maria B. Munford - Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 157-174 (1994)
Previous research has indicated that depression, the most common mental illness, can be related to suchfactors as gender, self-esteem, social class, and racial identity. Subjects in this study were 146 Black university students at North Carolina Central University and 83 Black males andfemales from the general population.
The subjects were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position, and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Data analysis was achieved through stepwise multiple regression and independent t-test techniques.
Results showed that higher levels of depression were associated with lower levels of self-esteem. Preencounter and encounter attitudes were positively related to levels of depression, and internalization attitudes were negatively associated with levels of depression. No significant gender differences were found in levels of self-esteem and depression, and no significant social class differences were found in levels of depression.
Untangling the Links between Narcissism and Self-esteem: A Theoretical and Empirical Review
By Jennifer K. Bosson, Chad E. Lakey, W. Keith Campbell, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Christian H. Jordan and Michael H. Kernis
Abstract: The links among narcissism, explicit (deliberate, controllable) self-esteem, and implicit (automatic, uncontrollable) self-esteem are unclear despite numerous attempts to illuminate these links. Some investigations suggest that narcissism reflects high explicit self-esteem that masks low implicit self-esteem, but other investigations fail to replicate this pattern.
Here, we place the mask model of narcissism in historical context and review the existing empirical evidence for this model. We then discuss three possible issues that might shed light on the inconsistent findings that have emerged from tests of the mask model. These issues include the unreliability of implicit attitude measures, narcissism's different associations with agentic versus communal self-views, and distinctions between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism subtypes. We also summarize several alternatives to the mask model of narcissism. Throughout, we offer suggestions for improving the study of narcissism and self-esteem and point to directions for future research on this topic.