Esteem refers to honor or positive evaluation within a group or community.
Some sociologists have thought of esteem as a form of social
status which can operate independently of income, wealth or power.
Self-esteem is high regard for oneself. Self-esteem can also mean good opinion of
Relationship of Gender, Self-Esteem, Social Class, and Racial Identity to Depression in Blacks
Maria B. Munford - Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 157-174 (1994)
Previous research has indicated that depression, the most common mental illness, can be
related to suchfactors as gender, self-esteem, social class, and racial identity. Subjects
in this study were 146 Black university students at North Carolina Central University and
83 Black males andfemales from the general population. The subjects were administered the
Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hollingshead Two-Factor
Index of Social Position, and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Data analysis was
achieved through stepwise multiple regression and independent t-test techniques. Results
showed that higher levels of depression were associated with lower levels of self-esteem.
Preencounter and encounter attitudes were positively related to levels of depression, and
internalization attitudes were negatively associated with levels of depression. No
significant gender differences were found in levels of self-esteem and depression, and no
significant social class differences were found in levels of depression.
Untangling the Links between Narcissism and
Self-esteem: A Theoretical and Empirical Review
By Jennifer K. Bosson, Chad E. Lakey, W. Keith Campbell, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Christian H.
Jordan and Michael H. Kernis
Abstract: The links among narcissism, explicit (deliberate, controllable) self-esteem, and
implicit (automatic, uncontrollable) self-esteem are unclear despite numerous attempts to
illuminate these links. Some investigations suggest that narcissism reflects high explicit
self-esteem that masks low implicit self-esteem, but other investigations fail to
replicate this pattern.
Here, we place the mask model of narcissism in historical context and
review the existing empirical evidence for this model. We then discuss three possible
issues that might shed light on the inconsistent findings that have emerged from tests of
the mask model. These issues include the unreliability of implicit attitude measures,
narcissism's different associations with agentic versus communal self-views, and
distinctions between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism subtypes. We also summarize
several alternatives to the mask model of narcissism. Throughout, we offer suggestions for
improving the study of narcissism and self-esteem and point to directions for future
research on this topic.