EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY
Social Inequality, Social
There is equality of opportunity where differences in
individual's wealth, status and power are not so great
as to create advantage and disadvantage in the pursuit of personal achievement.
The American ideal has been to provide equality of opportunity, whereas the
European Social Democracy seeks equality of outcomes. The American ideal
has been to provide equality of opportunity. Liberal ideology
and consensus theory claim that broad equality of
opportunity exists in modern societies. Equality of opportunity is a
political ideal opposed to caste hierarchy though not to
hierarchy as generally understood. The assumption is that there is a hierarchy of more
desirable and less desirable, superior and inferior positions in a society. Equality of
opportunity is quite consistent with inequality of
condition. But is not the same as two runners given an even start, and equally good
tracks. Inequality of condition does not necessarily lead to Inequality of opportunity. But inequality of
condition does undermine equality of opportunity.
Marginalization or social
exclusion occurs when some people or someone is left out of
mainstream society, and denied equal opportunity to participate in social,
economic and civic processes. In a caste society as in India
where even today untouchability is practiced in every nook and corner of the country, the
assignment of individuals to places in the social hierarchy is fixed by birth. The child acquires the social status of his or her parents if their union is
socially sanctioned. Social mobility may be possible in
a caste society, but one is admitted to a different level of the hierarchy based on their
initial ascriptive social status. When equality of opportunity
prevails, the assignment of individuals to places in the social hierarchy is determined by
competitive process, and all members of society are eligible to compete on equal terms. We cannot have equality of opportunity without equality of condition. Inequality of
condition, like soft discrimination, hurts a child throughout a child's life.
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