Sociology Index

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Prevalence, Incidence

Epidemiology is a term used largely in medical sociology and describing the study of the occurrence and distribution of diseases. Epidemiology investigates changes in the frequency of occurrence or incidence and association of diseases with particular physical or social locations.

Epidemiological research can be conducted on crime - viewed as analogous to a disease of society - and a host of social problems.

American College of Epidemiology - History and Mission: Over the past three decades, epidemiology, has matured into a field of its own, as both an academic discipline and a field of practice in a large variety of health agencies, hospitals, and research insitututions.

The past twenty years have been marked by a significant increase in the number of individuals who have chosen epidemiology as a career or who have entered epidemiology from such disciplines as medicine, statistics, sociology, genetics, and biology.

The American College of Epidemiology was incorporated in 1979 to develop criteria for professional recognition of epidemiologists and to address their professional concerns. The College has benefitted from the leadership of the leading epidemiologists in the world.

Emerging Themes in Epidemiology - online journal published by BioMed Central.

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (JESEE), is a peer-reviewed publication that publishes research important to exposure assessment for toxic substances, environmental epidemiology that includes a strong exposure analysis component and related disciplines that advance the exposure assessment process. JESEE also publishes papers on exposure analysis such as measurements and modeling; mechanisms of exposure; development of molecular biomarkers; genomic, proteomic, and metabonomics studies that assess exposure in the context of health effects; studies on chemical, biological, and physical principles required to analyze human exposure from single and multiple routes; occupational exposure studies; and, population-based studies.

Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology 
Nancy Krieger - Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005;59:350-355 
Embodiment. This construct and process are central to ecosocial theory and epidemiological inquiry. Recognising that we, as humans, are simultaneously social beings and biological organisms, the notion of "embodiment" advances three critical claims: (1) bodies tell stories about—and cannot be studied divorced from—the conditions of our existence; (2) bodies tell stories that often—but not always—match people’s stated accounts; and (3) bodies tell stories that people cannot or will not tell, either because they are unable, forbidden, or choose not to tell. Just as the proverbial "dead man’s bones" do in fact tell tales, via forensic pathology and historical anthropometry, so too do our living bodies tell stories about our lives, whether or not these are ever consciously expressed. This glossary sketches some key concepts, definitions, and hypotheses relevant for using the construct of "embodiment" in epidemiological research, so as to promote not only rigorous science but also social equity in health.

The globalization of epidemiology: critical thoughts from Latin America 
Mauricio L Barreto, Instituto de Sa˙de Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Padre Feijˇ, 29-Canela, 40.110–170 Salvador-Bahia - International Journal of Epidemiology 2004 33(5):1132-1137.
Background Epidemiology in Latin America, as in the rest of the world, has been developed for the purpose of contributing towards understanding the causes and determinants of the phenomena of health and disease in specific contexts. However, in that continent it has specific characteristics. 
Methods The paper explores epidemiology in the Latin American continent, emphasizing on the one hand epidemiology as a knowledge-producing, scientific discipline, and on the other hand, epidemiology in praxis, with its firm commitment to contributing towards transforming the health of the population. 
Results It has been possible to identify at least eight idiosyncrasies that characterize epidemiology in Latin America. It is being forged with a strong connection to the evolution of the discipline in an international context; however, it has its feet firmly planted in reality, seeking to extract from that reality elements that may contribute towards diminishing the serious health problems in that society. 
Conclusions This paper presents a picture of the development of epidemiology in Latin America. However, one important aspect is that these two elements, theory and praxis, present consistent dialectic relationships and feedback; this is the main wealth of Latin American epidemiology.