Enculturation is the process by
which the values and norms of a society
are passed on to or acquired by its members. Acculturation,
unlike enculturation, is adaptation to an alien culture. The
concept of enculturation has not been given an appropriate definition. The term
enculturation has been used inconsistently in anthropology as well as in other fields.
Various anthropologists have
tended to regard enculturation as consisting of such processes as socialization, the acquiring of culture, and cultural
internalization, excluding an innovative process of enculturation. Herskovits' definition
of enculturation includes a process of novel change and inquiry.
Two phases of enculturation
which constitute the total process of enculturation can be distinguished: the
"unconscious" stage of early years, where the individual
"unconsciously" internalizes his culture; the "conscious" stage of
later years, which involves innovations.
The problem in arbitrary
separation of the early years from the later is contradictory to psychological findings, existentialism, Gestalt, and personological.
It is proposed that
enculturation be defined as a construct that delineates transmission and transmutation of
culture throughout human growth. Enculturation, thus, involves innovation and inquiry
which is a particular type of epistemological sensivity to
culture. It is a bipolar process. - Nobuo Shimahara, Enculturation - A
Reconsideration, Current Anthropology, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Apr., 1970).
Moving toward Cultural Pluralism, Part l: The Process of Enculturation. Llanes,
Two theories of social integration. Theory of
assimilation is defined as a process of social and psychological adherence to a core society. Theory of pluralism is a
compounding of different activities and values to make up a group spirit. The
enculturation of people in San Francisco is discussed in terms of psychological
characteristics like concern, tolerance, internationalism, and pluralism. These
characteristics are related to factors of immigration,
minority assimilation, ethnic communality, and economic
predominance. Vietnamese immigrants are assimilated linguistically, racially, and
sociopolitically into Asian-speaking and French-speaking groups. The differences between
identification assimilation and enculturation are described.
ENCULTURATION INTO SECRECY AMONG JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS
DON E. MERTEN - Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 28, No. 2, 107-137 (1999)
Secrecy has been recognized as an important, and at times problematic,
aspect of social life. Girls' accounts of their enculturation into secrecy reveal how they
treated secrets as social objects. Ggirls also depersonalized secrets when using them as
social currency. Enculturation into secrecy involved much more than learning whom to tell
which secrets under what circumstance.
GOING-WITH - The Role of
a Social Form in Early Romance - DON E. MERTEN, Journal of Contemporary
Ethnography, Vol. 24, No. 4 (1996).
How a particular social form, going-with, shapes the experiences of early adolescents as
they begin their enculturation into romance.
The Dynamics in the
Enculturation and the Work in the Assistant Principalship
Catherine Marshall, William Greenfield, Urban Education, Vol. 22, No.1 (1987).
Enculturation of assistant principals tends to result in "custodial, nonrisk-taking,
noninstructional" orientations of potential educational leaders.
Incomplete Enculturation: The Role of Hearing - Grace Keyes, St.
How hearing loss impacts an individuals enculturation. Anthropologists have ignored
how such a factor affects enculturation. How hearing loss leads to misinterpretations that
negatively impact social interaction upon which
enculturation is grounded.
Sport, Socialization and the School: Toward Maturity or Enculturation? Schafer,
Source: OSSC Bulletin, v17 n5 Jan 1974.
Two polar views of the proper purpose of schooling are discussed, education for maturity
and education for enculturation. American public schools approach more closely the
enculturation rather than the maturity ideal. Interscholastic sports are held to be an
important mechanism for fostering enculturation.
Multidimensional enculturation: The case of an EFL Chinese doctoral student -
Source: Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, Volume 15, Number 1, 2005.
Examines the disciplinary enculturation experience of a Chinese doctoral student. Presents
the case of Fei, focusing on his interactions with specialist texts, the supervisor, and
the research community. Emphasizes the value of naturalistic
case studies in extending English educators scope of vision of academic