Sociology Index

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY

Equity can be thought of as a state of being equal or fair, and fairness in dealing with people. Employment equity has come to have several dimensions. First it suggests equal pay for equal work or equal pay for work of equal value.

The goal of both principles, equity and employment equity, is to establish equality between men and women, or able-bodied and physically-challenged persons, or ‘whites’ and people of colour. Employment equity has also come to imply proportionate hiring of various minority groups.

Institutional and Racial Barriers to Employment Equity for Hispanics - Jerry Yaffe, Public Policy Research - Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 3, (1994) - In Los Angeles County, civil rights and equal employment in the local government workforce have been historically defined as a Black-White issue. This parochial definition has served to restrict and minimize Hispanic public employment opportunities. One rationale used to account for and justify Hispanic underrepresentation, by both government officials and Black employee leadership, is a myth of a lack of an educated and qualified laborpool from which to meet employment equity goals for Hispanics.

Employment equity and minority legislation in the UK after two decades: a review 
Sloane P.J.; Mackay D., Department of Economics, University of Aberdeen.
International Journal of Manpower, Volume 18, Number 7, 1997, pp. 597-626(30)
Abstract: Examines employment equity legislation, initially introduced in the UK during the 1970s, along with separate legislation covering sex, race, religion and disability, together with separate enforcement bodies, and separate geographical arrangements in Britain and in Northern Ireland. Claims that the period since the 1970s has witnessed growing levels of unemployment, along with a focus on de-regulation of labour markets. Most British empirical work focuses on explaining earnings differentials using the standard Mincer human capital model with comparative neglect of employment equality issues. The fundamental question is to what extent has employment equity legislation been successful in removing labour market discrimination against minority groups.

Disabilities, gender and employment: social exclusion, employment equity and Canadian banking, Kim England, Department of Geography, University of Washington, Seattle.
Abstract: People with disabilities, especially women, suffer from appallingly high rates of poverty, and paid work is frequently cited as a primary route out of poverty. I draw on feminist analyses of work and disability studies to reflect on the Canadian federal government's Employment Equity Act. Social justice in the workplace is at least as much about the quality of social relationships as it is about statistical effects. Reaching workplace equity or employment equity also involves the creation of a workplace climate where people with disabilities experience supportive and responsive supervision, along with a sense of being respected and valued.

Employment Equity Programs and the Job Search Outcomes of Unemployed Men and Women: Actual and Perceived Effects - Heather Antecol and Peter Kuhn - Canadian Public Policy, 1999, vol. 25, issue s1, pages 27-45 
Abstract: Using a new survey of Canadian job searchers, this paper attempts to measure the effect of employment equity laws on job search outcomes, and on perceptions of discrimination by both men and women. We find some evidence that employment equity coverage in a pre-separation job reduces the relative amount of time it takes women, versus men, to become re-employed. This effect operates largely through highly significant differences in the rate at which women and men are recalled to the pre-separation employer. We also find that employment equity coverage reduces the gender gap in the extent to which workers feel harmed by gender discrimination.

Redesigning Employment Equity in Canada: The Need to Include Men
E. Cristina Echevarria and Mobinul Huq, Canadian Public Policy, 2001, vol. 27, issue 1
Abstract: This paper recommends that the goal of employment equity be stated in terms of "achieving an integrated workplace" instead of in terms of "hiring and promotion of the members of the target groups." It argues that some type of employment equity is needed to increase male employment in female-dominated occupations.

Employment Equity: Issues, Approaches and Public Policy Framework - Coates, M.L.

Employment Equity Programs and the Job Search Outcomes of Men and Women: Actual and Perceived Effects
Heather Antecol, Peter Kuhn

Government and Pay and Employment Equity
Aileen McColgan, Professor of Human Rights Law, King’s College, London, Barrister
Abstract: Historically, governments in the UK and elsewhere have used their contracting power to impose employment-related obligations upon private sector contractors. In the UK, government has been reluctant to impose positive obligations in relation to pay and employment equity on private sector employers. Many equality activists are calling upon the government to adopt contract compliance mechanisms for extending these obligations into the private sector. I will consider the perils and possibilities of these types of government involvement in pay and employment equity.

A Look at Employment-Equity Groups Among Recent Post- Secondary Graduates: Visible Minorities, Aboriginal Peoples and the Activity Limited - TED WANNELL, NATHALIE CARON, Statistics Canada 
Abstract: Employment equity legislation is becoming more prevalent in Canadian labor markets, yet--other than broad availability numbers--the labor market experiences of designated groups have not been well documented. Using the National Graduates Survey of 1992, this report profiles the early labor market experiences of visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities who graduated from Canadian universities and community colleges in 1990. In general, we find that the earnings of designated group members are very similar to the earnings of their classmates.

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY, A COMMITMENT TO MERIT: REPORT, Canadian Parliament, House of Commons, Standing Committee on Human Rights & the Status of Disabled Persons: 1995.
Abstract: Employment equity is an emotionally-charged issue today. It evokes a wide range of responses, from expectation and enthusiasm to resentment and anger. This document reflects the Committee's confidence that Canada's new employment equity law will ensure the pre-eminence of merit and the elimination of systemic discrimination in employment practices. 

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY ACT: ANNUAL REPORT, Human Resources Development Canada.
Abstract: Each June, employers covered under the Employment Equity Act submit annual reports. These reports describe the employment situation of the four designated groups (women, aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities, and members of visible minorities), and the progress that these employers have made toward achieving an equitable workforce during the year.

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY: AN EVEN BREAK, The Ontario Women's Directorate: 1987.
Abstract: Presents managers in a supermarket environment discussing employment related problems associated with employment of visible minorities, women in non-traditional occupations, and disabled, as well as strategies for successfully integrating such people in the workforce. A major theme is that, for an Employment Equity initiative to be successful, managers must be prepared to confront their own prejudices and change their own behaviour in order to set a good example to junior staff. 

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY, AN OVERVIEW OF POLICIES AND PROGRAMS IN ONTARIO, Campbell, Elaine: 1993.
Abstract: Reviews the implementation of employment equity in Ontario since the consolidation of human rights statutes in the 1960s. Begins with discussion of employment equity initiatives targeted at such groups as women, racial minorities, Aboriginals, Francophones, and the public service. This is followed by a review of implementation of employment equity in the broader public sector, including education, municipal government, health institutions, and the police, and in the private sector. 

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY: ANNUAL REPORT 1995-96, Saskatchewan: 1996.
Abstract: The government of Saskatchewan and both public service unions, the Saskatchewan Government Employees' Union and the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE), work together to implement employment equity initiatives in government.

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY: DOLLARS AND SENSE
Abstract: Looks solely at company responsibilities under the Employment Equity legislation, and stresses the benefits deriving from its implementation for employers. 

EMPLOYMENT EQUITY: IMPLEMENTATION
Abstract: A series of interviews with personnel involved in implementing Employment Equity initiatives into different types of work environments. Quite useful for training managers and supervisory level staff.