Sociology Index


Emotional labor is the process of managing feelings and expressions to fulfill the emotional requirements of a job. Expecting people to work in teams, and also show positive team behaviors with their colleagues, is another element of emotional labor. Grandey, Alicia A. (2000). "Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

The term emotional labour can be applied where emotion is faked. According to Arlie Russell Hochschild, emotional labour refers to paid work requiring the worker to maintain observable facial and bodily displays with the intention of creating particular emotional feelings in clients. Among workers performing emotional labour are musicians who perform even as the ship sinks, flight attendants who continue to smile as the plane crashes, bill collectors, funeral directors, doctors, nurses, and others. 

Merchandising smiles: Emotional labour in Jamaican tourism - Crick, Anne P, Author. Abstract - Emotional labour, the projection of certain emotions during the context of a job performance, is an important source of competitive advantage in many service industries including tourism. Tourism is however a very distinct industry with few boundaries between those who are paid to give emotional labour and those who are expected to give it voluntarily. This paper examines how emotional labour has been managed by the Jamaican Tourist Board and critically analyses these efforts. Little attention has been paid to the intrinsic motivation for performing emotional labour. 

The Effects of Emotional Labour on Employee Work Outcomes - Kay Hei-Lin Chu
Emotional labor can be defined as the degree of manipulation of one's inner feelings or outward behavior to display the appropriate emotion in response to display rules or occupational norms. This study concerns the development of an emotional labor model for the hospitality industry that aims at identifying the antecedents and consequences of emotional labour.

The study investigates the impact of individual characteristics on the way emotional labor is performed; it investigates the relationships among the different ways of enacting emotional labour. This study did not find strong relationships among the antecedents and emotional labour factors. Similarly, the proposed moderators were not found to moderate the relations between emotional labour and its consequences.