Sociology Index


In anthropology ego refers to the individual from whom the networks of kinship and family relationship and descent are traced. In psychology the term ego is used to refer to the self of the individual and the way they have constructed their personality and social identity. In Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the ego is the outcome of the individual's struggle to adapt their basic drives (the ‘id’) to the imperative control of society and culture (the super ego). 

The Ego Revisited - Understanding and Transcending Narcissism - The ego as a construct in humanistic and transpersonal psychology has a turbulent history. Transpersonal theorists have began to recognize and integrate the important contributions of American ego psychology and object relations theory toward an understanding of prestructural or prepersonal difficulties.

Beyond the Ego: Toward Transpersonal Models of the Person and Psychotherapy 
Roger N. Walsh, Frances Vaughan, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 20, No.1, (1980).
All psychologies posit either explicit or implicit models of the person which shape perception, organize experience, and determine methods of inquiry. A transpersonal model focuses on the human potential for growth, health, and well-being.

Ego and Self in the Group - H. Shmuel Erlich, the Israel Psychoanalytic Society and Institute. 
Group Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 2, 229-243 (1996)
The psychodynamic concepts of ego and Self are interwoven with group phenomena in a number of ways. Understanding ego and Self as representing different experiential modes of the subject's relatedness to his or her object enables us to better understand ego and Self in the group.

Ego Development and Black Identity - Jacqueline Looney, Duke University. 
The relationship of ego development and Black identity formation was explored in thirty Black male and thirty Black female college students. A significant inverse relationship was found between ego development and Black identity. This suggests that if an individual has strong ego, he or she defines self; if the individual's ego is weak, others define self.

The Relationship of Moral Judgment and Ego Development to Political-Social Values in Black College Students - Patricia J. Dunston, Albert Roberts, Howard University, Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1987).
Interrelationships among ego development, moral judgment, self-concept, and political- social values within a Black College-age population. Data gathered on 193 college students were probed by regression analysis. The results indicate that moral judgment has a greater causal influence that did ego development.

Social Complexity, Threat, Ego Defenses, and Labeling theory the Other a Deviant - A Racial Incident in the Development of a Small Group, Arthur Ferrari, Connecticut College.
Ego defense and their role in triggering people to lable another as deviant in a developing small group. Relationship between the complexity of a social relationship and the complexity of ego defense when self and relationaship are threatened. Support was found for the relationship and showed that disparate levels of social interaction played a role in the decision to label compounded by apparent racism.