In anthropology ego refers to the
individual from whom the networks of kinship and
family relationship and descent are traced. In psychology the term ego is used to
refer to the self of the individual and the way they have constructed their personality
and social identity. In Sigmund
Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the ego is the outcome of the individual's struggle to
adapt their basic drives (the id) to the imperative
control of society and culture (the super ego).
The Ego Revisited -
Understanding and Transcending Narcissism - The
ego as a construct in humanistic and transpersonal psychology has a turbulent history.
Transpersonal theorists have began to recognize and integrate the important contributions
of American ego psychology and object relations theory toward an understanding of
prestructural or prepersonal difficulties.
Beyond the Ego: Toward
Transpersonal Models of the Person and Psychotherapy
Roger N. Walsh, Frances Vaughan, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 20, No.1,
All psychologies posit either explicit or implicit models of the person which shape
perception, organize experience, and determine methods of inquiry. A transpersonal model
focuses on the human potential for growth, health, and well-being.
Ego and Self in the Group -
H. Shmuel Erlich, the Israel Psychoanalytic Society and Institute.
Group Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 2, 229-243 (1996)
The psychodynamic concepts of ego and Self are interwoven with group phenomena in a number
of ways. Understanding ego and Self as representing different experiential modes of the
subject's relatedness to his or her object enables us to better understand ego and Self in
Ego Development and Black Identity - Jacqueline Looney, Duke
The relationship of ego development and Black identity formation was explored in thirty
Black male and thirty Black female college students. A significant inverse relationship
was found between ego development and Black identity. This suggests that if an individual
has strong ego, he or she defines self; if the individual's ego is weak, others define
The Relationship of Moral Judgment and Ego Development to Political-Social Values
in Black College Students - Patricia J. Dunston, Albert Roberts, Howard
University, Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1987).
Interrelationships among ego development, moral judgment, self-concept, and political-
social values within a Black College-age population. Data
gathered on 193 college students were probed by regression
analysis. The results indicate that moral judgment has a greater causal influence that
did ego development.
Social Complexity, Threat, Ego Defenses, and Labeling
theory the Other a Deviant - A Racial Incident in the Development of a Small
Group, Arthur Ferrari, Connecticut College.
Ego defense and their role in triggering people to lable another as deviant in a
developing small group. Relationship between the complexity of a social relationship and
the complexity of ego defense when self and relationaship are threatened. Support was
found for the relationship and showed that disparate levels of social interaction played a role
in the decision to label compounded by apparent racism.