Sociology Index

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Effective guardianship is an aspect of the routine activity theory approach to understanding crime and in particular victimization. Effective guardianship approach argues that three key factors are required for crime to happen: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and ineffective guardianship of that target. Effective guardianship would include having locks on bikes, security lights in the backyard, or putting goods in the trunk of the car. 

Crime occurs when there is an intersection in time and space of a motivated offender, an attractive target, and a lack of effective guardianship. People's daily routine activities affect the likelihood they will be an attractive target who encounters an offender in a situation where no effective guardianship is present.

Changes in routine activities in working class women can affect crime rates. Community Crime Prevention is a general category of prevention strategies which focus on the community itself. Developmental Crime Prevention is an approach to crime prevention which focuses on the way a crime occurs. Situational Crime Prevention is premised on the belief that most crime is opportunistic. lifestyle-exposure theory explains the correlates of crime against persons.

Routine Activities Impending Social Change and Policing 
Journal: Canadian Police College Journal Volume:7 Issue:2 Dated:(1983). D J Koenig ; E P DeBeck.
Abstract: Changing crime patterns are viewed as a normal response to changing routine activities of society that affect the motivation of potential offenders, target suitability, and effective guardianship of people and their property, formal and informal social control. The effects of such social trends on target suitability, motivated offenders, and effective guardianship are outlined. Implications for various aspects of policing operations are drawn, target suitability, and effective guardianship of people and their property.

Male peer support and a feminist routing activities theory: Understanding sexual assault on the college campus - Schwartz, Martin; DeKeseredy, Walter; Tait, David; Alvi, Shahid. Justice Quarterly, Volume 18, Number 3, September 2001, pp. 623-649(27).
Abstract: Routine activities theorists traditionally have assumed offenders' motivation and victims' suitability from demographic correlates, and have done little to study effective guardianship.

Specifying the Influence of Family and Peers on Violent Victimization 
Extending Routine Activities and Lifestyles Theories 
Christopher J. Schreck, Rochester Institute of Technology 
Bonnie S. Fisher, University of Cincinnati, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 19, No. 9, 1021-1041 (2004).
The fact that crime and victimization share similar correlates suggests that family and peer contexts are potentially useful for explaining individual differences in violent victimization. In this research, we used routine activities and lifestyles frameworks to reveal how strong bonds of family attachment can promote more effective guardianship while simultaneously making children less attractive as targets and limiting their exposure to motivated offenders.

Compulsory treatment of alcoholism: the case against 
MacAvoy, Michael1; Flaherty, Bruce1
Source: Drug and Alcohol Review, 1990, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 267-271(5)
Abstract: The need for compulsory detention in the management of alcohol-dependent persons is reviewed with a particular focus on legislation in New South Wales (NSW).

The Span of Collective Efficacy: Extending Social Disorganization Theory to Partner Violence 
Christopher R. Browning.
Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 64 Issue 4 Page 833 - November 2002
This research applies the social disorganization perspective on the neighborhood-level determinants of crime to partner violence. Collective efficacy exerts a more powerful regulatory effect on nonlethal violence in neighborhoods where tolerance of intimate violence is low. Emphasis on the crime-inhibiting role of effective guardianship is rooted in collective efficacy and socially organized neighborhoods.

Conventional Crime (From Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, P 242-269, 1987, Rick Linden, ed. D J Koenig.
Hindelang and associates have developed a Lifestyle Exposure Theory to explain the correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended the theory to property crimes. 
Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization varies by time, space, and social setting and by the extent to which routine activities increase target suitability and reduce effective guardianship. Crimes against persons have some different correlates than do crimes against property, but most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle/exposure theory.