Sociology Index

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ECOFEMINISM

Ecofeminism is a philosophy born from the union of feminist thinking and ecological thinking and the belief that the social mentality that leads to the oppression of women is directly connected to the social mentality that leads to the abuse of the natural environment. Ecofeminism connects the exploitation and degradation of the natural world with the subordination and oppression of women. Ecofeminism is a set of ideas within the Environmental Movement. Ecofeminism is political movement which finds common ground between environmentalism and feminism. Therefore ecofeminism and the environmental movement must overthrow patriarchal structures and ideologies in order to protect or enhance the natural environment. Ecofeminism emerged when the second-wave feminism and the green movement emerged. Ecofeminism, is a term coined by Francoise d'Eaubonne. Ecofeminists are trying to reconceptualize our relationship with nature. A basic assumption of ecofeminism is that patriarchal societies tend to associate women with nature and debase, or rape, both. Ecofeminist philosophers distinguish between the oppression of women and the domination of nature. Sexism, racism, classism, heterosexism, and ethnocentrism are examples of what Warren calls unjustified “isms of domination.” Ecofeminism's basic premise is that the ideology that authorizes oppression based on race, social class, gender, sexuality, physical abilities, and species is the same ideology that sanctions the oppression of nature. There is an Ecofeminism-Deep Ecology Debate.

Ecofeminism In Literature

Ecofeminism in the Novels of Sarah Joseph and Anita Nair.
Niyathi. R. Krishna PhD scholar Dept. of Management Studies, IIT Roorkee Roorkee, India niyathi.iit@gmail.com Dr. Pashupati Jha Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, India. Abstract: The aim and main objective of the study is analysis and interpretation of the textual and conceptual essence of ecofeminism in brief in the selected novels of Sarah Joseph and Anita Nair. To achieve this, it is essential to explore relevant ecofeminist theories and perspectives through a thorough and vast literature survey. Ecofeminism is vital to unveil the exploitations and invasions over our ecology and its resources by the developed countries in the names of globalization, urbanization and development.

Ecofeminism, Patriarchy, Capitalism and Post Colonialism in the Indian Scenario: A Short Study
Reshma Ranjith, Dr. T.K. Pius (Research Scholar, Department of English, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India).
Abstract: This paper entitled Ecofeminism, Patriarchy and Post Colonialism in the Indian Scenario tries to discuss the existence of ecofeminism and patriarchy in the Indian context. This paper also explores the relation of capitalism to patriarchy. It also looks into the ecological movements and ecofeminism in India. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 22, Issue 9, Ver. 14 (September. 2017).

Ecofeminism Meets Criminology - PAULINE LANE, University of East London, Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 2, No. 2, (1998). - I suggest that law breaking has traditionally been and continues to be an important part of feminist political protest. Law breaking can also be understood as a symbolic act that seeks to challenge the dominant ideas and values in a society. Ecofeminists are attempting to reconceptualize our relationship with nature.

Gender Equality and State Environmentalism - Kari Norgaard, University of California-Davis, Richard York, University of Oregon - Gender & Society, Vol. 19, No. 4, 506-522 (2005).
There are several compelling reasons to expect that gender equality may serve to foster state environmentalism. However, most previous research on environmental politics has neglected gender. The findings indicate that nations with higher proportions of women in Parliament are more prone to ratify environmental treaties than are other nations.

Is the Body Essential for Ecofeminism? - Terri Field, The University of Queensland, Australia 
Organization & Environment, Vol. 13, No. 1, 39-60 (2000). In this article, the author argues that the body is essential, that is, indispensable, to ecofeminism. Ecofeminists have revealed the many ways in which women and nature have been devalued and dominated. The author follows other ecofeminists in disagreeing with a mischaracterisation of ecofeminism as reinforcing an essentialist connection between women and nature. A number of useful ways in which ecofeminists have attempted to deal with issues of embodiment are outlined. This article shows how ecofeminists might benefit from these insights and addresses the inadequacies revealed in this work through an ecofeminist analysis.

Women, Water, Energy - An Ecofeminist Approach 
Greta Gaard, Western Washington University, Fairhaven College 
Organization & Environment, Vol. 14, No. 2, 157-172 (2001).
How can an ecofeminist perspective help us understand and respond to the problems of water pollution and energy production that we face today? Ecofeminism illuminates the way in which gendered, cultural assumptions about water, power, and human relations have led to creating a water-power infrastructure that perpetuates environmental sexism, environmental racism, and environmental classism. As an alternative, an ecofeminist approach to water justice advocates strategies for bringing about an ecological democracy, an ecological economics, and a partnership culture in which water and energy flow freely.

Ecofeminism and Process Philosophy - Carol P. Christ, Feminist Theology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 289-310 (2006).
Change she asserts is good, indeed divine, a statement in bold contrast to the Western tradition which attempts to fix and control all things. The individual and her relationship to the environment becomes an active process, with neither reduced to mere things, and both ever changing in relationship.

Technology, Scripture, and Ecofeminism: The Wind and the Sea Respond 
Margaret P. Gilleo, Maryville University - Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 19, (1999).
A contrasting relational approach toward the natural world is offered by ecofeminism, which speaks for those whose voices, both human and nonhuman, have been ignored or negated. This article discusses the environmental history of the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan River, and the adjacent wetlands and forests. It applies an ecofeminist hermeneutic to the story of Jesus's calming the Wind and the Sea, as a religious rationale for the ethical use of science and technology.

Tracking the Elusive Green Women: Sex, Environmentalism, and Feminism in the United States and Europe - Mark Somma, Sue Tolleson-Rinehart, Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 1, 153-169 (1997). Ecofeminism is a set of theories variously claiming that, because of biological determinism, reproductive and maternal roles, the oppression of patriarchy and women's more holistic spiritual connection to nature, or the alternative perspective that feminism can provide, women are more concerned about the environment than are men. Apart from ecofeminist theory, "green" and liberal political parties and candidates in Western nations believe in ecofeminism and appear also to assume that women view pro-environmentalist policies more favorably. But can "ecofeminism" be identified in Western mass publics?

Ecofeminism Books

"The Ecofeminism/Deep Ecology Debate: A Reply to Patriarchal Reason," - Ariel Salleh.

"The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and its Parallels," - Warwick Fox.

"Class, Race, and Gender Discourse in the Ecofeminism/Deep Ecology Debate," - Ariel Salleh.

"Eco-Feminism and Deep Ecology," - Jim Cheney.

"Is There an Ecofeminism-Deep Ecology 'Debate'?" - Deborah Slicer.

Deep ecology versus ecofeminism: Healthy differences or incompatible philosophies? Sessions, R. (1996).