Silent Spring, Environmental Movement, Gender Inequality
Ecofeminism is a philosophy born from the union of feminist and ecological thinking and the belief that the social mentality that leads to the oppression of women is directly connected to the social mentality that leads to the abuse of the natural environment. Ecofeminism, is a term coined by Francoise d'Eaubonne. Ecofeminists are trying to reconceptualize our relationship with nature. Ecofeminism is a set of ideas within the environmental movement. A basic assumption of ecofeminism is that patriarchal societies tend to associate women with nature and debase, or rape, both.
Ecofeminism is political movement which finds common ground between environmentalism and feminism. Therefore ecofeminism and the environmental movement must overthrow patriarchal structures and ideologies in order to protect or enhance the natural environment. Ecofeminist philosophers distinguish between the oppression of women and the (unjustified) domination of nature. Sexism, racism, classism, heterosexism, and ethnocentrism are examples of what Warren calls unjustified “isms of domination.”
Deep ecology versus ecofeminism: Healthy differences or incompatible philosophies? Sessions, R. (1996).
Ecofeminism Meets Criminology - PAULINE LANE, University of East London, Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 2, No. 2, (1998) - I suggest that law breaking has traditionally been and continues to be an important part of feminist political protest. Law breaking can also be understood as a symbolic act that seeks to challenge the dominant ideas and values in a society. Ecofeminists are attempting to reconceptualize our relationship with nature.
Gender Equality and State
Environmentalism - Kari Norgaard, University of California-Davis, Richard
York, University of Oregon - Gender & Society, Vol. 19, No. 4, 506-522 (2005)
There are several compelling reasons to expect that gender equality may serve to foster state environmentalism. However, most previous research on environmental politics has neglected gender. The findings indicate that nations with higher proportions of women in Parliament are more prone to ratify environmental treaties than are other nations. The results point to the importance of considering the role of gender in analyses of state behavior and environmental politics and are consistent with the argument of some feminist theorists that the exploitation of nature and the exploitation of women are interconnected.
Is the Body Essential for
Ecofeminism? - Terri Field, The University of Queensland, Australia
Organization & Environment, Vol. 13, No. 1, 39-60 (2000)
In this article, the author argues that the body is essential, that is, indispensable, to ecofeminism. Ecofeminists have revealed the many ways in which women and nature have been devalued and dominated. The author follows other ecofeminists in disagreeing with a mischaracterisation of ecofeminism as reinforcing an essentialist connection between women and nature. A number of useful ways in which ecofeminists have attempted to deal with issues of embodiment are outlined. By introducing the work of feminist theorists that problematises a number of long-standing and entrenched assumptions regarding embodiment, this article shows how ecofeminists might benefit from these insights and addresses the inadequacies revealed in this work through an ecofeminist analysis.
Women, Water, Energy - An Ecofeminist Approach
Greta Gaard, Western Washington University, Fairhaven College
Organization & Environment, Vol. 14, No. 2, 157-172 (2001)
How can an ecofeminist perspective help us understand and respond to the problems of water pollution and energy production that we face today? Ecofeminism illuminates the way in which gendered, cultural assumptions about water, power, and human relations have led to creating a water-power infrastructure that perpetuates environmental sexism, environmental racism, and environmental classism. As an alternative, an ecofeminist approach to water justice advocates strategies for bringing about an ecological democracy, an ecological economics, and a partnership culture in which water and energy flow freely.
Ecofeminism and Process Philosophy - Carol P. Christ,
Feminist Theology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 289-310 (2006)
In this article Carol Christ illustrates the ways in which process philosophy offers dynamic alternatives to dualistic habits of thought. She highlights how the Goddess is the most relational in the process and therefore the most sympathetic to the unfolding of the universe and those who inhabit it. Change she asserts is good, indeed divine, a statement in bold contrast to the Western tradition which attempts to fix and control all things. The individual and her relationship to the environment becomes an active process, with neither reduced to mere things, and both ever changing in relationship.
Technology, Scripture, and Ecofeminism: The Wind and the Sea Respond
Margaret P. Gilleo, Maryville University - Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 19, No. 4, 310-313 (1999)
A contrasting relational approach toward the natural world is offered by ecofeminism, which speaks for those whose voices, both human and nonhuman, have been ignored or negated. This article discusses the environmental history of the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan River, and the adjacent wetlands and forests. It applies an ecofeminist hermeneutic to Mark 4:35-41, the story of Jesus's calming the Wind and the Sea, as a religious rationale for the ethical use of science and technology.
Tracking the Elusive Green Women: Sex, Environmentalism, and Feminism in the United States and Europe - Mark Somma, Sue Tolleson-Rinehart, TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 1, 153-169 (1997)
Ecofeminism is a set of theories variously claiming that, because of biological determinism, reproductive and maternal roles, the oppression of patriarchy and women's more holistic spiritual connection to nature, or the alternative perspective that feminism can provide, women are more concerned about the environment than are men. Apart from ecofeminist theory, "green" and liberal political parties and candidates in Western nations believe in ecofeminism and appear also to assume that women view pro-environmentalist policies more favorably. But can "ecofeminism" be identified in Western mass publics?
Ariel Salleh, "The
Ecofeminism/Deep Ecology Debate: A Reply to Patriarchal Reason," in
Environmental Ethics 14 (Fall 1992): 195-216.
Ariel Salleh, "Class, Race, and Gender Discourse in the Ecofeminism/Deep Ecology Debate," in Environmental Ethics 15 (Fall 1993): 225-244.
Deborah Slicer, "Is There an Ecofeminism-Deep Ecology 'Debate'?" in Environmental Ethics 17 (Summer 1995): 151-169.
Jim Cheney, "Eco-Feminism and Deep Ecology," in Environmental Ethics 9 (Summer 1987): 115-145.
Warwick Fox, "The Deep Ecology-Ecofeminism Debate and its Parallels," in Environmental Ethics 11 (Spring 1989): 5-25.