Sociology Index

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DOUBLE BURDEN

Double burden, double day, double duty and second shift are terms used to describe the situation of women who perform paid work outside the domestic sphere as well as homemaking inside the home. There is also Double Burden of being black and also a female in America. A double burden, also called double shift is the workload of people who work to earn money. Social feminists advocate women's labor laws as a means of easing this double burden. Addressing the double burden of reproductive and productive labor for women will definitely be the key to social change. A double burden is also called double day, second shift, and double duty.

Double burden is the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are also responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor. Like women, rural girls particularly in Asian countries, experience the double burden of contributing to the care of cattle including fetching fodder, as well as responsibility for household duties. It is called double burden, because domestic work is private and outside the cash economy, it is not remunerated and this causes it to appear as something less than real work and as part of the gender role of women.

A report published in The Lancet, says a new approach is needed to help reduce the ‘double burden’ of undernutrition and obesity at the same time, as the issues become increasingly connected due to rapid changes in countries’ food systems. The authors used survey data from low- and middle-income countries in the 1990s and 2010s to estimate which countries faced a double burden of malnutrition. In the 2010s, 14 countries with some of the lowest incomes in the world had newly developed a double burden of malnutrition, compared with the 1990s. The double burden of malnutrition is characterised by the coexistence of undernutrition along with overweight and obesity, or diet-related noncommunicable diseases, within individuals, households and populations, and across the lifecourse.

The double burden of malnutrition is the coexistence of overnutrition alongside undernutrition (stunting and wasting), at all levels of the population—country, city, community, household, and individual. This four paper Series explores how this coexistence is affecting low-income and middle-income countries. Malnutrition in its many forms has previously been understood and approached as a separate public health issue, but the new emergent reality is that undernutrition and overnutrition are interconnected and, therefore, double-duty actions that simultaneously address more than one dimension must be implemented for policy solutions to be effective. In addition to policy recommendations, the Series includes a focus on both historical and biological contexts, and new economic analysis.

The Double Burden: Do Combinations of Career and Family Obligations Increase Sickness Absence among Women? - Espen Bratberg, S Dahl and Alf Erling Risa.
Women working full time in the labour market often face a second shift at home. We investigate whether this double burden increases sickness absence among Norwegian women. When selection is not accounted for in the analyses, increasing the number of children decreases sickness absence for a given labour-market career. When sample selection is accounted for, increasing the number of children has an adverse impact on sickness absence. This finding provides some support for the double-burden hypothesis.
 

Double Burden: Black Women and Everyday Racism by Yanick St. Jean and Joe R. Feagin. The women interviewed in Double Burden share bitter, important home truths as well as personal triumphs. Double Burden dips into a deep well of anger and suspicion, though its message may be hard to bear.

Using the Service Economy to Relieve the Double Burden - Female Labor Force Participation and Service Purchases - R. S. OROPESA, Pennsylvania State University. Using a national survey conducted in 1990, this article examines how wives' labor force participation affects the extent to which families use the market economy to provide goods and services that have traditionally been produced by women.

Is There a Political Support for the Double Burden on Prolonged Activity? 
GEORGES CASAMATTA, HELMUTH CREMER, PIERRE PESTIEAU - Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Abstract: In many countries, elderly workers are subject to a double distortion when they consider prolonging their activity: the payroll tax and a reduction in their pension rights. It is often argued that such a double burden would not be socially desirable. We consider a setting where it would be rejected by both a utilitarian and a Rawlsian social planner.

Double burden may nevertheless be Pareto analysis efficient and can be supported by a particular structure of social weights biased towards the more productive workers.

Does Migration Empower Married Women? 
NATALIE CHEN, PAOLA CONCONI, CARLO PERRONI - February 2006
Abstract: Differences in gender-based labor market discrimination across countries imply that migration may affect husbands and wives differently. Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel indeed shows that, as long as renegotiation opportunities are limited, comparatively better wages for migrant women lead them to bear the double burden of market and household work.