Double Burden is a term used to describe the situation of women who perform paid work outside the domestic sphere as well as homemaking and child-care work inside the home. There is Double Burden of being black and also a female in America. Double Burden, because domestic work is private and outside the cash economy, it is not remunerated and this causes it to appear as something less than real work and as part of the gender role of women. Other terms for double burden include double day, double duty and second shift. Social feminists advocate women's labor laws as a means of easing this double burden. Addressing the double burden of reproductive and productive labor for women will definitely be the key to social change. Like women, rural girls particularly in Asian countries, experience the double burden of contributing to the care of cattle including fetching fodder, as well as responsibility for household duties.
The Double Burden: Do Combinations of Career and Family Obligations Increase
Sickness Absence among Women? - Espen Bratberg, S Dahl and Alf
Women working full time in the labour market often face a second shift at home. We investigate whether this double burden increases sickness absence among Norwegian women. When selection is not accounted for in the analyses, increasing the number of children decreases sickness absence for a given labour-market career. When sample selection is accounted for, increasing the number of children has an adverse impact on sickness absence. This finding provides some support for the double-burden hypothesis.
Double Burden: Black Women and Everyday Racism by Yanick St. Jean and Joe R. Feagin. The women interviewed in Double Burden share bitter, important home truths as well as personal triumphs. Double Burden dips into a deep well of anger and suspicion, though its message may be hard to bear.
Using the Service
Economy to Relieve the Double Burden - Female Labor Force Participation and Service
Purchases - R. S. OROPESA, Pennsylvania State University.
Using a national survey conducted in 1990, this article examines how wives' labor force
participation affects the extent to which families use the market
economy to provide goods and services that have traditionally been produced by women.
Is There a Political Support for the Double Burden on Prolonged Activity?
GEORGES CASAMATTA, HELMUTH CREMER, PIERRE PESTIEAU - Centre for Economic Policy Research. Abstract: In many countries, elderly workers are subject to a double distortion when they consider prolonging their activity: the payroll tax and a reduction in their pension rights. It is often argued that such a double burden would not be socially desirable. We consider a setting where it would be rejected by both a utilitarian and a Rawlsian social planner. We show that the double burden may nevertheless be Pareto analysis efficient and can be supported by a particular structure of social weights biased towards the more productive workers.
Does Migration Empower Married Women?
NATALIE CHEN, PAOLA CONCONI, CARLO PERRONI - February 2006
Abstract: Differences in gender-based labor market discrimination across countries imply that migration may affect husbands and wives differently. Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel indeed shows that, as long as renegotiation opportunities are limited, comparatively better wages for migrant women lead them to bear the double burden of market and household work.