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# Dependent Variable

In statistics, the dependent variable is the event
studied and expected to change whenever the independent
variable is altered. The dependent variables represent the output or outcome whose
variation is being studied and the independent variables represent inputs or causes for
variation. Models explain the effects that the independent variables
have on the dependent variables. Independent variables may
be included for other reasons, such as for their potential confounding effect.
In simulation, the dependent variable is changed in response to changes in the
independent variables.

In data mining, the
depending variable is assigned a role as target variable while a dependent
variable may be assigned a role
as regular variable. In quasi-experiment,
differentiating between dependent variable may be downplayed in favour of differentiating
between those variables that can be altered by the researcher and those that cannot be
altered by the researcher. In mathematical modelling, there are dependent
variables and independent
variables. The dependent variables represent the output whose variation is being studied.

## Dependent Variable Books

**Analysis of Multiple Dependent Variables**.
- By Patrick Dattalo.

**Analysis of Panels and Limited Dependent
Variable Models. **Cheng Hsiao, M. Hashem Pesaran, Kajal Lahiri.

**Regression Models for Categorical and
Limited Dependent Variables**

J. Scott Long, John Scott Long - 1997. A unified treatment of the most useful models for
categorical and limited dependent variables.

**Investigating Welfare
State Change: The 'dependent Variable Problem'**

Jochen Clasen, Nico A. Siegel - 2007. By discussing the most salient aspects of the
'dependent variable problem', this work offers suggestions as to how the problem
might be tackled within empirical cross-national analyses of modern welfare
states.

**Econometrics of Qualitative Dependent
Variables**. - By Christian Gourieroux. Professor Gourieroux also looks at Tobit models, in
which the exogenous variable is sometimes qualitative and sometimes
quantitative, and changing-regime models.