Sociology Index


Dependent development is a central concept of dependency theory. Dependent development has typically involved the exporting of primary resources. Rather than seeing the world's nations dividing economic labor and interacting as equal partners, dependent development suggests that some nations are able to impose unequal exchanges on others and thus retard the economic development of these nations or make their development dependent on stronger or more economically advanced nations.

Dependent development is more a leftist and nationalist view of globalization and supraterritoriality. At the beginning of the seventies, Brazil was the archetype of dependent development, a country whose rapid industrialization was propelled by a combination of investment by transnational corporations and the demand for consumer durables that depended on rising inequality of condition. According to Evans & Gereffi there is no evidence that endogenous political forces are as important in the process of dependent development as external ones.

Transnational Economic Linkages, the State, and Dependent Development in South Korea, 1966-1988: A Time-Series Analysis - York W. Bradshaw, Young-Jeong Kim, Bruce London, Social Forces, Vol. 72, No. 2 (Dec., 1993), pp. 315-345. Abstract: This article uses time-series analysis to examine development patterns in South Korea, a country that has realized dramatic economic growth over the last several decades.

We show that: arguments associated with classical dependency and dependent development theory must be modified substantially when applied to Korea; foreign trade and foreign loans have facilitated economic growth, whereas the capital outflow associated with direct foreign investment continues to impede expansion. Korea has experienced a form of dependent development that relies heavily on international trade, a strong national state, and local business. This pattern is in contrast to Latin American dependent development, which places a emphasis on direct foreign investment.

Dependent Development in the Third World in the Decade of Oil - Barry Almark, S. S. Alvarado, Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 15, No. 3, 97-114 (1983).
Barry Almark and S. S. Alvarado argue that after a decade of Third World control over oil resources, the economic dependence of most Third World countries has increased. The end of the narrative, 1983, finds a developing world with stagnant economic growth where independent Third World policy actions are virtually ruled out by their foreign creditors, both private banks and the governments of the major capitalist countries.

Structural Consolidation: The Colorado Delta Region, 1900-10 - Miguel De Oliver
In the period of vast systemic consolidation and expansion of the capitalist world-system in the late 19th and early 20th century via transnational corporations, a large quantity of investment capital primarily in the form of one transnational, linked the Colorado Delta region to the global economy. The result was capital-intensive dependent development and the region's conversion to the role of peripheral producer in the world-economy.

The Historical and Global Nature of Dependent Development - Kathleen C. Schwartzman
A Time-Series Analysis of Brazil and Mexico, 1901-80
History rarely appears as a variable in dependency or dependent development studies. We do not know if dependency or dependent development processes observed in the period prior to the Second World War foretell those of the postwar period. Ironically, the empirical evidence scholarship in dependency research appears guilty of the charge leveled against neoclassical economists. Dependency theorists assert that postcolonial market mechanisms-mediated principally through prices-produce economic outcomes similar to those produced by the political apparatus of the colonialism. While the scholarship has moved away from the more orthodox "underdevelopment" position, it affirms, a dependent development position, that countries which are more "dependent" on industrialized nations for the direction and velocity of their growth suffer dampened or distorted economic development.

Dependent Development and Regional Integration: A Critical Examination of the Southern... Richards Latin American Perspectives.1997; 24: 133-155

Cardoso's Theory of Dependent Development and the Socio-political Limits of Foreign Corporate Ownership in Brazil - Abells, Susan
When Fernando Henrique Cardoso became President of Brazil in 1995, he implemented a model of development under the Washington Consensus that reproduced and accelerated Brazil’s situation of dependency. I argue that with their power to influence the industrial strategy of Brazil badly eroded, those domestic capitalists disenfranchised by Cardoso’s development model abandoned it in the presidential election of 2002, fracturing the unity of the capitalist classes, creating a crisis of hegemony.