Sociology Index


Social Darwinism, Marxism And Darwinism

Darwinism is the theory that plants and animals have developed, one from another. The primitive theory was that all known plants and animals have always been the same. According to Darwinism, “All kinds are invariable because the parents transmit their characteristics to their children.”

There were, however, some peculiarities among plants and animals which gradually forced a different conception to be entertained. They so nicely let themselves be arranged into a system which was first set up by the Swedish scientist Linnaeus.

In Darwinism, the animals are divided into main divisions;
these divisions are divided into classes,
classes are divided into orders,
orders are divided into families,
families are divided into species, and
each species contain a few kinds.

The more similar they are in their characteristics, the nearer they stand towards each other in this system, and the smaller is the group to which they belong. The animals classed as mammalian show the same general characteristics in their bodily frame. The herbivorous animals, and carnivorous animals, and monkeys, each of which belongs to a different order, are again differentiated. Bears, dogs, and cats, all rapacious animals, have much more in common in bodily form than they have with horses or monkeys.

This conformity is still more obvious when we examine varieties of the same species; the cat, tiger and lion resemble each other in many respects where they differ from dogs and bears. When we compare the class of mammals to other classes, such as birds or fishes, we find greater differences than we find in the other class.