Sociology Index

CRIMINAL RECIDIVISM

The term Criminal Recidivism is frequently used along with criminal behavior and substance abuse as recidivism is a synonym for relapse. Criminal Recidivism is repetition of criminal behavior by an offender previously convicted and punished for an offence. Criminal Recidivism is a measure of the effectiveness of rehabilitative ideal or the deterrent effect of punishment. Criminal recidivism rates are high in the United States, Netherlands, England and Wales reaching figures above 50%. Individuals with a criminal record facing difficulties in the labour market also raises the possibility of criminal recidivism.

The term Criminal Recidivism is also used to refer to the percentage people who are rearrested for a similar offense they commited earlier. The term Recidivism is a synonym for "relapse", used in medicine. While an important concept in evaluation research, criminologists have great difficulty in determining just how to measure criminal recidivism. For example, Is it criminal recidivism to commit a less serious offence than the previous offence? Is it criminal recidivism to be returned to prison for a violation of the terms of parole?

The term criminal recidivism in the context of terrorism recidivism is used to refer to the return to terrorist activity after a period of formal sanction or detention. The term, re-engagement, is used to describe a return to terrorist activity after a window of disengagement, regardless of whether or not the disengagement was the result of detention or incarceration or due to more voluntary factors.

Criminal Recidivism Abstracts

Brief motivation enhancing intervention to prevent criminal recidivism in substance-abusing offenders under supervision: a randomized trial.
Lilach Shaul, Maarten W. J. Koeter & Gerard M. Schippers.
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a brief motivation enhancing intervention (MEI) on criminal recidivism. This was a multi-site, cluster-randomized clinical trial in six addiction probation offices.

Criminal Recidivism after Prison and Electronic Monitoring
Rafael Di Tella, Ernesto Schargrodsky
Abstract: We study the re-arrest rates for two groups: individuals formerly in prison and individuals formerly under electronic monitoring (EM). We find that the recidivism rate of former prisoners is 22% while that for those 'treated' with electronic monitoring is 13% (40% lower).

Criminal Recidivism Books

Criminal Recidivism - Explanation, prediction and prevention
By Georgia Zara, David P. Farrington.
Criminal Recidivism intends to fill a gap in the criminological psychology literature by examining the processes underlying persistent criminal careers. This book aims to investigate criminal recidivism, and why, how and for how long an individual continues to commit crimes, whilst also reviewing knowledge about risk assessment and the role of psychopathy in encouraging recidivism. It also focuses on the recidivism of sex offenders and on what works in reducing reoffending. At an empirical level, this book attempts to explain criminal persistence and recidivism using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. At a psycho-criminological level it joins together quantitative and qualitative analyses, making its content a practical guide to explain, predict, and intervene to reduce the risk of criminal recidivism. 

The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 4: Criminal Recidivism. Yanick Charette, Anne G Crocker, Michael C Seto, Leila Salem, Tonia L Nicholls, and Malijai Caulet.
Objective: To examine criminal recidivism rates of a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in Canada’s 3 most populous provinces, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. Public concern about the dangerousness of people found NCRMD has been fed by media attention on high-profile cases. However, little research is available on the rate of reoffending among people found criminally responsible on account of mental disorder across Canadian provinces.