CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY
General use of the term crime seems to refer to intentional violations of criminal law or public law in general. Crime is human behavior that is designated by law as criminal and subject to a penal sanction.
Crime is the central focus of criminology and a major topic of the sociology of deviance, but there is no consensus on how to define the term crime. Many sociologists look at crime as a social construction, or a label, and look at crime being created through the passing of laws and the application of those laws.
This is what is called a realist assumption about crime. Symbolic interactionists and phenomenologists, however, see crime as something created and defined by processes of social interaction and interpretation and reject both the realist assumption and the concept of the crime funnel.
CRIME-CONTROL MODEL: An ideal type used to capture one side of a debate about the central values or practices of the criminal justice system: should the central value be the protection of the liberty of the individual citizen or should the central value be the maintenance of social order? This model gives emphasis to values and practices which would exert or enhance the system's capacity to control crime, and thus maintain social order, through police action, prosecution, conviction and punishment.
CRIMINAL IDENTITY: A social category, imposed by the community, that correctly or incorrectly defines an individual as a particular type of criminal. The identity will pervasively shape their social interactions with others. It is similar in concept to master status.
Classical Criminology is considered to be the first formal school of criminology,
Critical Criminology is a form of criminology (the study of crime) using a conflict perspective of some kind: Marxism, feminism, political economy theory or critical theory. In critical criminology, law and the definition and punishment of crime are then seen as connected to a system of social inequality and as tools for the reproduction of this inequality.