Sociology Index E-Books

CONVENTIONAL CRIME

Conventional crimes are those traditional, illegal behaviors that most people think of as crime. Most crime is conventional crime. Non-conventional crime, may be Organized Crime, White-Collar Crime, Blue-collar Crime, Pink-collar Crime, Political Crime, Corporate Crime, Occupational Crime.

Conventional crime includes murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary and theft. Cybercrime is just a conventional crime committed with high-tech devices.

Conventional crime from an international perspective. This paper compares and attempts to integrate the results of the two largest international empirical sources of crime and criminal justice data (the United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems and the International Crime Victimization Survey) with respect to world crime levels.

These two sources provide different pictures of conventional crime from an international perspective. One of the main factors contributing to differences in crime levels based on these two international data sources relates to police reporting patterns. These are much higher in the industrialized world compared with other developmental regions. Differences are due to a number of factors related to the propensity to report to the police, including the degree of insurance coverage and the public confidence in police. Comparative analysis stimulates discussion on the relationships between development and crime, particularly in relation to the modernization theory. The results seriously challenge modernization theory, whose empirical evidence base is composed exclusively of official criminal justice statistics.

Race, conventional crime, and criminal justice - The declining importance of skin color 
Matt DeLisia and Bob Regolia, Department of Sociology University of Colorado Boulder,
Abstract: Blacks in the United States are arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and incarcerated in numbers disproportionate to their percentage of the population. One explanation is that racial discrimination against Blacks pervades the American system of criminal justice. This study examined the nature and extent of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system by evaluating five propositions using data from extant literature. Little evidence was found to support the allegation that the criminal justice system systematically discriminates against Blacks.

Prisoner-on-prisoner violence: Victimization of young offenders in prison. Some German findings - Helmut Kury, University of Freiburg, Germany 
Ursula Smartt, Thames Valley University, London 
This article will discuss new findings relating to prisoner-on-prisoner violence from Germany. The juxtaposition of victim and victimizer, deeply embedded in the prisonization culture, will be given careful consideration. It will be argued that victimology has largely concentrated on 'conventional crime', which, in turn, has created and generated certain limitations regarding the concepts of 'good' and 'evil' and 'acceptable' and 'non-acceptable' victims.

Occupational crime, occupational deviance, and workplace crime: Sorting out the difference - David O Friedrichs, University of Scranton, USA 
The concept of occupational crime - as one of the principal forms of white collar crime - has been quite familiar and widely invoked since the publication of Clinard and Quinney's influential Criminal Behavior Systems: A Typology. More recently, however, the term occupational crime has been applied to activities quite removed from the original meaning of white collar crime, and it has been used interchangeably with such terms as occupational deviance and workplace crime. In the interest of greater conceptual clarity within the field of white collar crime the argument is made here for restricting the term 'occupational crime' to illegal and unethical activities committed for individual financial gain - or to avoid financial loss - in the context of a legitimate occupation. The term 'occupational deviance' is better reserved for deviation from occupational norms, and the term 'workplace crime' is better reserved for conventional forms of crime committed in the workplace.

Police Strikes and Conventional Crime - ERDWIN H. PFUHL, JR.
ABSTRACT: Employing FBI "Return A Record Card" data, this study examines the impact of municipal police strikes on reported rates of burglary, robbery, larceny, and auto theft in 11 U.S. cities. Relationships reflecting the view that police presence is essential for crime prevention and social order are examined for variation duration of police strike, city size, and offense category. Overall, analysis yields very limited support for the police presence argument, suggesting that strikes have neither a significant nor a systematic impact on rates of reported crime. Implications of findings for the formulation of police policy are discussed.

Conventional Crime (From Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, 1987, Rick Linden, ed.) - D J Koenig 
Hindelang and associates have developed a lifestyle/exposure theory to explain the correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended the theory to property crimes. 
Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization varies by time, space, and social setting and by the extent to which routine activities increase target suitability and reduce effective guardianship. The patterns and correlates of conventional crimes are consistent with this approach. Crimes against property tend to be committed disproportionately against those whose lifestyle leave their possessions least effectively guarded. Crimes against persons have some different correlates than do crimes against property, but most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle/exposure theory. For typical crimes, victims (and offenders) are most likely to be young, male, and engage in evening activities away from home. Thus, their lifestyles place them in social settings with a higher risk of criminal victimization.

THE VOICE OF VICTIMS OF CRIME: ESTIMATING THE
TRUE LEVEL OF CONVENTIONAL CRIME
- by Anna Alvazzi del Frate
Abstract: Since its launch in 1989, the International Crime Victim Survey has attracted growing interest from the research community and policy makers. In addition to providing an alternative source of data on crime to complement official statistics, the Survey offers internationally standardized indicators for the perception and fear of crime. At the country level, the International Crime Victim Survey is used to monitor differences in crime and perceptions between countries and over time. By collecting social and demographic information on respondents, crime surveys also allow analysis of how both objective and subjective risks of crime vary for different groups within the population, in terms of age, gender, education, income levels and lifestyles.
The questionnaire includes sections on 11 types of conventional crime, for which standard definitions are provided.
Of the eleven “conventional” crimes, some are “household crimes”, that is, crimes that can be seen as affecting the household.

Conventional Crime, U.N. Report: Balkans Safer Than Thought
With detailed, comprehensive statistics, the report concludes that the Balkans, contrary to widespread opinion, does not have a problem with conventional crime: “South East Europe does not, in fact, suffer from high rates of crime, at least in terms of the range of offences commonly referred to as ‘conventional crime’: murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, theft, and the like. In fact, most of the region is safer than West Europe in this respect.” The report notes, “This key fact is often omitted from discussions on crime in the region.”

White Collar Crime Steals Thunder From Conventional Crime, Says Police Chief
KUALA LUMPUR, Oct 28 (Bernama) -- White collar crime steals the thunder from conventional crime as it potentially affects the financial performance of commercial organisations in the country.
As such, issues related to financial crime, fraud and corruption were a major concern to the government, said Deputy Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Ismail Omar.
He said white collar crime or economic crime could take different forms, including bribery, cyber crime, asset misappropriation, cheque and credit card fraud, identity theft, insurance fraud, money laundering and counterfeiting.
The deputy inspector-general of police said over the years, capitalists, corporate executives and even criminologists argued that white collar crime took a back seat to a strong national focus on more conventional crimes, specifically violent ones.