Sociology Index

CONVENTIONAL CRIME

Conventional crimes are traditional, illegal behaviors that most people think of as crime. Most crimes are conventional crimes which include murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary and theft. Cybercrime is just another conventional crime committed with high-tech devices. Non-conventional crime, includes White-Collar Crime, Blue-collar Crime, Pink-collar Crime, Political Crime, Corporate Crime, Occupational Crime, Red-collar Crime, and Green-collar Crimes. Conventional crimes are studied from an international perspective. We generally compare and attempt to integrate the results of the two largest international empirical evidence sources of crime and criminal justice data (the United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems and the International Crime Victimization Survey) with respect to world crime levels. These two sources provide different pictures of conventional crime from an international perspective.

The term 'occupational deviance' is better for deviation from occupational norms, and the term 'workplace crime' is better for conventional crime committed in the workplace. Comparative analysis stimulates discussion on the relationships between development and crime, particularly in relation to the modernization theory. The results seriously challenge modernization theory, whose empirical evidence base is composed exclusively of official criminal justice statistics. For the sake of conceptual clarity within the field of white collar crime the argument is made for restricting the term 'occupational crime' to illegal and unethical activities committed for individual financial gain, or to avoid financial loss, in the context of a legitimate occupation.

Conventional Crime (From Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, 1987, Rick Linden, ed.) - D J Koenig.
Hindelang and associates have developed a lifestyle exposure theory to explain the correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended the theory to property crimes. Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization varies by time, space, and according to routine activity theory, increase target suitability and reduce effective guardianship. The patterns and correlates of conventional crimes are consistent with this approach. Crimes against property tend to be committed disproportionately against those whose lifestyle leave their possessions least effectively guarded. Crimes against persons have some different correlates than do crimes against property, but most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle exposure theory. For typical crimes, victims and offenders are most likely to be young, male, and engage in evening activities away from home.

Prisoner-on-prisoner violence: Victimization of young offenders in prison. Some German findings - Helmut Kury, University of Freiburg, Germany, Ursula Smartt, Thames Valley University, London. This article will discuss new findings relating to prisoner-on-prisoner violence from Germany. The juxtaposition of victim and victimizer, deeply embedded in the prisonization culture, will be given careful consideration. It will be argued that victimology has largely concentrated on 'conventional crime', which, in turn, has created and generated certain limitations regarding the concepts of 'good' and 'evil' and 'acceptable' and 'non-acceptable' victims.

Race, conventional crime, and criminal justice - The declining importance of skin color - Matt DeLisia and Bob Regolia, Department of Sociology University of Colorado Boulder. Abstract: Blacks in the United States are arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and incarcerated in numbers disproportionate to their percentage of the population. One explanation is that racial discrimination against Blacks pervades the American system of criminal justice. This study examined the nature and extent of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system by evaluating five propositions using data from extant literature. Little evidence was found to support the allegation that the criminal justice system systematically discriminates against Blacks.

Police Strikes and Conventional Crime - ERDWIN H. PFUHL, JR.
ABSTRACT: Employing FBI "Return A Record Card" data, this study examines the impact of municipal police strikes on reported rates of burglary, robbery, larceny, and auto theft in 11 U.S. cities. Relationships reflecting the view that police presence is essential for crime prevention and social order are examined for variation duration of police strike, city size, and offense category. Overall, analysis yields very limited support for the police presence argument, suggesting that strikes have neither a significant nor a systematic impact on rates of reported crime. Implications of findings for the formulation of police policy are discussed.

Conventional Crime, U.N. Report: Balkans Safer Than Thought
With detailed, comprehensive statistics, the report concludes that the Balkans, contrary to widespread opinion, does not have a problem with conventional crime: “South East Europe does not, in fact, suffer from high rates of crime, at least in terms of the range of offences commonly referred to as ‘conventional crime’: murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, theft, and the like. In fact, most of the region is safer than West Europe in this respect.” The report notes, “This key fact is often omitted from discussions on crime in the region.”

THE VOICE OF VICTIMS OF CRIME: ESTIMATING THE TRUE LEVEL OF CONVENTIONAL CRIME - by Anna Alvazzi del Frate. Abstract: Since its launch in 1989, the International Crime Victim Survey has attracted growing interest from the research community and policy makers. In addition to providing an alternative source of data on crime to complement official statistics, the Survey offers internationally standardized indicators for the perception and fear of crime. At the country level, the International Crime Victim Survey is used to monitor differences in crime and perceptions between countries and over time. The questionnaire includes sections on 11 types of conventional crime, for which standard definitions are provided. Of the eleven conventional crimes, some are household crimes, that is, crimes that can be seen as affecting the household.

White Collar Crime Steals Thunder From Conventional Crime, Says Police Chief
KUALA LUMPUR, Oct 28 (Bernama). White collar crime steals the thunder from conventional crime as it potentially affects the financial performance of commercial organisations in the country. As such, issues related to financial crime, fraud and corruption were a major concern to the government, said Deputy Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Ismail Omar.
He said white collar crime or economic crime could take different forms, including bribery, cyber crime, asset misappropriation, cheque and credit card fraud, identity theft, insurance fraud, money laundering and counterfeiting. The deputy inspector-general of police said over the years, capitalists, corporate executives and even criminologists argued that white collar crime took a back seat to a strong national focus on more conventional crimes, specifically violent ones.

A Comparative Study on the Difference Between Conventional Crime and Cyber Crime
G.K. Ayswariya and Aswathy Rajan, Saveetha School of Law, Saveetha University, Chennai. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Volume 119 No. 17 2018.

Abstract: One of the contrasts amongst cybercrime and conventional crime is the confirmation of the offenses. Conventional lawbreakers as a rule leave hints of a сrime, through either fingerprints or other physical confirmations. Then again, cybercriminals depend on the Internet by means of which they carry out their crimes, and it leaves no proof of the cybercrime.

The second contrast amongst conventional crime and cybercrime is length of examinations. Since cybercrime includes culprits utilizing misrepresented names and working from remote areas, it more often than not takes more time to distinguish the genuine cyberhoodlums and catch them. Conventional crimes take less time to examine in light of the fact that the offenders as a rule leave proof that can be utilized to spot them.

Another contrast between conventional crimes and cybercrimes is the power included. The vast majority of the conventional crimes, like, assault, murder, pyro-crime, and thievery among others include the utilization of over the top power that outcomes in physical damage and injury on the casualties.