Conventional crimes are those
traditional, illegal behaviors that most people think of as crime. Most crime is
conventional crime. Non-conventional crime, may be Organized
Crime, White-Collar Crime, Blue-collar Crime, Pink-collar
Crime, Political Crime, Corporate Crime, Occupational
Crime. Conventional crime includes murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary and theft.
Cybercrime is just a conventional crime committed with high-tech devices.
Conventional crime from an
international perspective. This paper compares and attempts to integrate the
results of the two largest international empirical sources of crime and criminal justice
data (the United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems
and the International Crime Victimization Survey)
with respect to world crime levels.
These two sources provide
different pictures of conventional crime from an international perspective. One of the
main factors contributing to differences in crime levels based on these two international
data sources relates to police reporting patterns. These are much higher in the
industrialized world compared with other developmental regions. Differences are due to a
number of factors related to the propensity to report to the police, including the degree
of insurance coverage and the public confidence in police. Comparative analysis stimulates
discussion on the relationships between development and crime, particularly in relation to
the modernization theory. The results seriously
challenge modernization theory, whose empirical evidence
base is composed exclusively of official criminal justice statistics.
Race, conventional crime,
and criminal justice - The declining importance of skin color
Matt DeLisia and Bob Regolia, Department of Sociology University of Colorado Boulder,
Abstract: Blacks in the United States are arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and
incarcerated in numbers disproportionate to their percentage of the population. One
explanation is that racial discrimination against Blacks pervades the American system of
criminal justice. This study examined the nature and extent of racial discrimination in
the criminal justice system by evaluating five propositions using data from extant
literature. Little evidence was found to support the allegation that the criminal justice
system systematically discriminates against Blacks.
violence: Victimization of young offenders in prison. Some German findings -
Helmut Kury, University of Freiburg, Germany
Ursula Smartt, Thames Valley University, London
This article will discuss new findings relating to prisoner-on-prisoner violence from
Germany. The juxtaposition of victim and victimizer, deeply embedded in the prisonization culture, will be given careful consideration.
It will be argued that victimology has largely concentrated on 'conventional crime',
which, in turn, has created and generated certain limitations regarding the concepts of
'good' and 'evil' and 'acceptable' and 'non-acceptable' victims.
Occupational crime, occupational deviance,
and workplace crime: Sorting out the difference - David O Friedrichs,
University of Scranton, USA
The concept of occupational crime - as one of the principal forms of white collar crime -
has been quite familiar and widely invoked since the publication of Clinard and Quinney's
influential Criminal Behavior Systems: A Typology. More recently, however, the term
occupational crime has been applied to activities quite removed from the original meaning
of white collar crime, and it has been used interchangeably with such terms as
occupational deviance and workplace crime. In the interest of greater conceptual clarity
within the field of white collar crime the argument is made here for restricting the term
'occupational crime' to illegal and unethical activities committed for individual
financial gain - or to avoid financial loss - in the context of a legitimate occupation.
The term 'occupational deviance' is better reserved for deviation from occupational norms,
and the term 'workplace crime' is better reserved for conventional forms of crime
committed in the workplace.
Police Strikes and Conventional Crime - ERDWIN H. PFUHL, JR.
ABSTRACT: Employing FBI "Return A Record Card" data, this study examines the
impact of municipal police strikes on reported rates of burglary, robbery, larceny, and
auto theft in 11 U.S. cities. Relationships reflecting the view that police presence is
essential for crime prevention and social order are examined for variation duration of
police strike, city size, and offense category. Overall, analysis yields very limited
support for the police presence argument, suggesting that strikes have neither a
significant nor a systematic impact on rates of reported crime. Implications of findings
for the formulation of police policy are discussed.
Conventional Crime (From
Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, 1987, Rick Linden, ed.) - D J
Hindelang and associates have developed a lifestyle/exposure theory to explain the
correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended the theory to
Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization varies
by time, space, and social setting and by the extent to which routine activities increase
target suitability and reduce effective guardianship. The patterns and correlates of
conventional crimes are consistent with this approach. Crimes against property tend to be
committed disproportionately against those whose lifestyle leave their possessions least
effectively guarded. Crimes against persons have some different correlates than do crimes
against property, but most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle/exposure
theory. For typical crimes, victims (and offenders) are most likely to be young, male, and
engage in evening activities away from home. Thus, their lifestyles place them in social settings with a
higher risk of criminal victimization.
THE VOICE OF VICTIMS OF CRIME: ESTIMATING THE
TRUE LEVEL OF CONVENTIONAL CRIME - by Anna Alvazzi del Frate
Abstract: Since its launch in 1989, the International Crime Victim Survey has attracted
growing interest from the research community and policy makers. In addition to providing
an alternative source of data on crime to complement official statistics, the Survey
offers internationally standardized indicators for the perception and fear of crime. At
the country level, the International Crime Victim Survey is used to monitor differences in
crime and perceptions between countries and over time. By collecting social and
demographic information on respondents, crime surveys also allow analysis of how both
objective and subjective risks of crime vary for different groups within the population,
in terms of age, gender, education, income levels and lifestyles.
The questionnaire includes sections on 11 types of conventional crime, for which standard
definitions are provided.
Of the eleven conventional crimes, some are household crimes, that
is, crimes that can be seen as affecting the household.
Conventional Crime, U.N. Report: Balkans Safer
With detailed, comprehensive statistics, the report concludes that the Balkans, contrary
to widespread opinion, does not have a problem with conventional crime: South East
Europe does not, in fact, suffer from high rates of crime, at least in terms of the range
of offences commonly referred to as conventional crime: murder, rape, assault,
robbery, burglary, theft, and the like. In fact, most of the region is safer than West
Europe in this respect. The report notes, This key fact is often omitted from
discussions on crime in the region.
White Collar Crime Steals Thunder From Conventional Crime, Says Police Chief
KUALA LUMPUR, Oct 28 (Bernama) -- White collar crime steals the thunder from conventional
crime as it potentially affects the financial performance of commercial organisations in
As such, issues related to financial crime, fraud and corruption were a major concern to
the government, said Deputy Inspector-General of Police Tan Sri Ismail Omar.
He said white collar crime or economic crime could take different forms, including
bribery, cyber crime, asset misappropriation, cheque and credit card fraud, identity
theft, insurance fraud, money laundering and counterfeiting.
The deputy inspector-general of police said over the years, capitalists, corporate
executives and even criminologists argued that white collar crime took a back seat to a
strong national focus on more conventional crimes, specifically violent ones.