Sociology Index

COLLECTIVE SOLIDARITY

Social Solidarity, Organic Solidarity

Similar in meaning to David Emile Durkheim's term mechanical solidarity, collective solidarity or community solidarity refers to a state of social bonding or interdependency which rests on similarity of beliefs and values, shared activities, and ties of kinship and cooperation among members of a community.

Mechanical solidarity is a term used by David Emile Durkheim to refer to a state of community bonding and rests on a similarity of beliefs and values, shared activities, and ties of kinship and cooperation.

Emile Durkheim introduced the terms "mechanical solidarity" and "organic solidarity" as part of his theory of the development of societies in "The Division of Labour in Society" (1893).

In mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individuals. People feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity is found in "traditional" and small scale societies.

In mechanical solidarity social integration is based on mutuality of interests found in those societies with little division of labor and modernization.

Organic solidarity is a term used by Emile Durkheim to refer to a state of interdependency created by the specialization of roles and in which individuals and institutions become acutely dependent on others in a complex division of labour.

Incorporation and Mechanical Solidarity in an Underground Coal Mine - Charles Vaught, David L. Smith, Virgina Polytechnic Institute and State University - Work and Occupations, Vol. 7, No. 2, (1980)
We illustrate the concern with mechanical solidarity exhibited by work groups within a dangerous work setting. Building upon the notions of Ralph Turner and Louis Zurcher, the argument is made that groups which must continually deal with potential disaster will manifest mechanical solidarity as the dominant form of social integration.

Scapegoating and the Simulation of Mechanical Solidarity in Former Yugoslavia:
“Ethnic Cleansing” and the Serbian Orthodox Church

Keith Doubt, Wittenberg University, Humanity and Society (Vol. 31, No. 1, February 2007).
I use the concept of scapegoating to explain the ritualized character of “ethnic cleansing” after the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. The Serbian Orthodox Church’s use of a scapegoat paradigm to incite violence created a pseudo-sense of solidarity among the Serbian people. Although this solidarity resembles �mile Durkheim’s concept of mechanical solidarity, I question the stability of this solidarity insofar as it is based on the negativity of war crimes and genocide.

A Proposal to Recycle Mechanical and Organic Solidarity in Community Sociology. 
Perry, Charles, Rural Sociology, v51 n3 p263-77 Fall 1986
Reinterprets Durkheim's theory of social solidarity to argue that division of labor directly reduces solidarity but indirectly increases solidarity through secondary groups, the state, and the cult of individuality. - eric.ed.gov

Solidarity, Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity
Anne M. Hornsby
Extract: French sociologist �mile Durkheim (1858–1917) coined the terms mechanical and organic solidarity to describe two types of social organization, that is, ways in which individuals are connected to each other and how they identify with the groups and societies in which they live. Social solidarity is a state of unity or cohesion that exists when people are integrated by strong social bonds and shared beliefs and also are regulated by well-developed guidelines for action. Durkheim argued that social solidarity takes different forms in different historical periods and varies in strength among groups in the same society. Mechanical solidarity is a simple, pre-industrial form of social cohesion and organic solidarity is a more complex form that evolves in modern societies. In developing his mechanical-organic solidarity distinction, Durkheim drew on the organicist thinking that influenced many intellectuals of his generation, where human societies are analyzed with analogies to biological organisms.