Collective Behavior Books
Collective behavior is defined as activity
involving a large number of people that is often spontaneous. Social movements are organized and relatively sustained
activities that have a clear goal in terms of achieving or preventing social change. Collective behavior is the actions taken by
people gathered together usually in defiance of society's norms.
In every society
and civilization people have absorbed themselves in
episodes of collective behavior such as the crowd, the riot, and revolution. These
collective behavior episodes has evolved into a field of sociology and a concept known as
The generalized types of collective behavior
Localized as crowds, mobs or riots.
Dispersed, or mass behavior as in rumor,
fads or propaganda.
Social movements which are sustained
activities to achieve a particular end.
The Importance of Learning
Studying collective behavior can be very practical and useful in today's society. There
have been many accounts of crowds, mobs and riots that have turned dangerous. Studying
collective behavior will allow people to better understand how people respond in certain
What Is Collective Behavior?
Groups taking to the streets protesting against a certain action. Groups taking to the
streets demanding or opposing certain rights or discrimination. These come under
collective behavior. Collective behavior includes a range of behaviors based on concern
and attitude or just panic and fads. Collective behavior includes many sociological
Collective Behavior - Abstracts
The Collective Dynamics of Belief
Duncan J. Watts, Dept of Sociology, and Institute for Social and Economic Research and
Policy, Columbia University.
A theme that dominates the Protestant Ethic is that belief precedes rationality. The
values by which one economic order can be judged are neither universal nor exogenous, but
A Study of Sports Crowd
Behavior: The Case of the Great Pumpkin Incident
Linda Levy, Department of Sociology Rutgers University - Journal of Sport &
Social Issues, Vol. 13, No. 2, 69-91 (1989)
Which theory of collective behavior best predicts or explains how crowd processes work
prompted this case study.
By examining the unfolding of
one episode of nonviolent collective behavior at a professional football game, theories of
collective behavior are tested for their utility in sports crowd situations. Shows
contagion theory, convergence theory, emergent norm theory, and value-added theory which
all valuable in explaining facets of observed spectator behavior.
Collective Behavior in
Organizational Settings - Ralph L. Blankenship -Department of Sociology
and Anthropology University of Wisconsin-Platteville - Work and Occupations, Vol. 3,
No. 2, 151-168 (1976) - Abstract: In a community mental health center which stressed
professional colleagueship unilateral use of authority presented recurring contingent
crises. Negotiation is the primary mechanism of controlling equals and to indicate
collective behavior as an alternative course toward negotiated order.
of Collective Behavior: Lessons from Elian
Abstract: In a comparative international context Cuba is in a pre-transitional political
stage in which the systems of social control do not permit the occurrence of organized
The Apparent Madness of
Crowds: Irrational collective behavior emerging from interactions among rational agents
- Authors: Sitabhra Sinha - 2006
The observation of extremely large fluctuations in the price of financial assets that are
not correlated to changes in their fundamental value imply that markets do display
Mob Sociology and
Escalated Force: Sociology's Contribution to Repressive Police Tactics (2000) -
By David Schweingruber
Abstract: Mob sociology is derived from sociological theories about crowd behavior, but
ignores that crowds occur within a larger social context. Mob sociology is highly
compatible with the escalated force style of protest policing.
The Crowd and Collective Behavior: Bringing
Symbolic Interaction Back In
Clark McPhail, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign - Symbolic Interaction, Fall 2006,
Vol. 29, No. 4, Pages 433-464
Abstract: The importance of symbolic interaction in the formation of temporary gatherings,
in the dynamic alternation between individual and collective actions, and in the dispersal
"The Media as Spur and Spoiler: A Theory of
Multiple Influences on Collective Behavior" - David A. Siegel,
Abstract: Individual interests are heterogeneous. People choose whether or not to
participate in the behavior based on a comparison of costs and benefits. Social elites who
are unified in their interests can play an outsized role in
"When Does Repression Work? Collective Behavior Under the Threat of
Abstract: Model involving adaptive social learning, shaped by the network structure,
targeted repression, and mass media.
Society: Collective Behavior, News and Opinion, and Sociology and Modern Society.
by Robert E. Park, Everett Cherrington Hughes - Review Rudolf Heberle - The American
Journal of Sociology, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jul., 1956), pp. 97-98.
A Test of the Emergent Norm Theory of Collective
Authors: Aguirre B.E; Wenger D; Vigo G.
Abstract: The timing of evacuation behavior of occupants of the World Trade Center to test
predictions from Emergent Norm Theory.
BREAKDOWN THEORIES OF COLLECTIVE ACTION
Bert Useem Department of Sociology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Breakdown theory dominated the sociological study of collective action. Resource
mobilization theory displaced breakdown theory as the dominant paradigm.
Psychoanalytic Sociology: An Essay on the Interpretation of Historical Data and
the Phenomena of Collective Behavior: By Fred Weinstein and Gerald M. Platt.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
Deficiencies of Psychoanalytic Sociology point to a central dilemma of psychoanalysis. For
psychoanalysis to be a scientific discipline it must be codified and integrated.
Neuro-Psychological Social Theorizing and Simulation with the Computational
Multi-Agent System Ethos, invited paper at Proceedings of the Congresso em
Neurociências Cognitivas, Évora, Jorge Simão, Luís Moniz Pereira
Abstract: Social theorists aim to develop a unified body of knowledge to shed light on the
question of human sociality. Ethos extends the traditional features provided in current
MAS for agent-based modelling.
What's Cool? - Modelling Fashion-like Collective Behavior Emergence from
Individual Neuro-psychological Conditioning - Jorge Simão, Peter M. Todd,
Luís Moniz Pereira,
Abstract: A model that shows how mechanisms of neuro-psychological conditioning at
individual level can generate the emergence of fashion-like collective behavior.
Exploratory design of collective behavior
Eric Bonabeau, Icosystem Corporation
Agent-based modeling enables us to reproduce emergent phenomena in collective human
A Method for Systematically Observating and
Recording Collective Action (1999)
By David Schweingruber and Clark McPhail - Sociological Methods and Research 27(4):
Abstract: The collective action observation method is a method for observing and recording
collective action across temporary gatherings.
Simulating Arcs and Rings in Gatherings
By Charles W. Tucker, David Schweingruber and Clark McPhail.
Abstract: Collective behavior must be able to account for simple and common collective
phenomena as arcs and rings.
A Computer Simulation of a Sociological Experiment
By David Schweingruber - Social Science Computer Review 13(3):351--359
The GATHERING program is used to simulate a simplified form of McPhail and Wohlstein's
collective locomotion experiment.
Collective Behavior - Journals
an international journal of research and theory specializing in social movements, protests
and collective behavior.
Social Movement Studies
is an international and inter-disciplinary journal providing a forum for academic debate
and analysis of extra-parliamentary political, cultural and social movements.
The Institute of the
Study of Collective Behavior and Memory is a non-profit organisation whose
general purpose is to pursue research into ancient rituals, myths and legends, symbols,
systems of abstract and applied knowledge.
Strands of Theory and
Research in Collective Behavior - G T Marx, J L Wood
Behavioral & Social
Sciences Librarian - Valuable, reliable information on the production,
collection, organization, dissemination, retrieval, and use of information in the social
and behavioral sciences.
Organizational Behavior - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Behavior - Bibliography
Smelser, "Some Additional Thoughts on Collective Behavior," in Collective
Behavior: A Source Book, ed. M.D. Pugh (West, 1980).
Eckstein, "Explaining Collective Political Violence," in Regarding Politics:
Essays on Political Theory, Stability and Change (Univ. of California Press, 1992).
David L. Miller, Introduction to Collective Behavior
R. George Kirkpatrick and Shoon Lio, Course Readings in
Collective Behavior (KB Books, 1996)
Gary T. Marx and James L. Wood, "Strands of
Collective Behavior Theory and Research," Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 1 (1975).
Neil. J. Smelser, "Some Additional Thoughts on Collective Behavior," in
Collective Behavior: A Source Book, ed. M.D. Pugh (West, 1980).
Clark McPhail, "Blumer's Theory of Collective
Behavior: The Development of a Non-Symbolic Interaction Explanation." Sociological
Quarterly 30 (1989).
Robert W. Balch and Margaret Gilliam, "Devil Worship in Western Montana: A Case Study
in Rumor Construction," in The Satanism Scare, ed. James T. Richardson (Aldine De
Robert Stallings, "Collective Behavior Theory and
the Study of Mass Hysteria," Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization,
ed. Russell R. Dynes and Kathleen Tierney (University of Delaware Press, 1994).
Ralph H. Turner, "The Moral Issue in Collective
Behavior and Collective Action." Mobilization (1996)
Jerry M. Lewis, "A Study of the Kent State Incident
Using Smelser's Theory of Collective Behavior," Sociological Inquiry, vol. 42 (1972).
Patricia A. Turner, "Ambiva lent Patrons: The Role of Rumor and Contemporary Legends
in African-American Consumer Decisions," Journal of American Folklore, vol. 105
Robert Stallings, "Collective Behavior Theory and the Study of Mass Hysteria,"
Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization, ed. Russell R. Dynes and Kathleen
Tierney (University of Delaware Press, 1994).
B.E. Aguirre, E.L. Quarantelli, and Jorge L. Mendoza, "The Collective Behavior of
Fads: The Characteristics, Effects, and Career of Streaking," American Sociological
Review (August 1988).
Clark McPhail, "Individual and Collective Behavior within Gatherings, Demonstrations,
and Riots." Annual Review of Sociology 9(1983).
Kathleen J. Tierney, "Property Damage and Violence: A Collective Behavior
Analysis," in The Los Angeles Riots: Lessons for the Urban Future, ed. Mark
Baldassare (Westview, 1994).
J. David Knotternus, "The Melanesian Cargo Cults: A Test of the Value-Added Theory of
Collective Behavior," Sociological Inquiry, vol 53 (Fall 1983).
Steven J. Lilley and Gerald M. Platt, "Correspondents' Images of Martin Luther King
Jr.: an Interpretive Theory of Movement Leadership." in Constructing the Social, ed.
by Theodore R. Sarbin and John Kitsuse. (Sage, 1994).