Clovis culture is the culture of what are assumed to be the first human inhabitants of the Americas. Clovis culture or Clovis archaeological culture has been discussed for decades. Stone spear points were found at a site near Clovis New Mexico in the 1930s and dated to 11,200 years ago. This Clovis culture date is consistent with the theory that the first humans arrived on the American continent by way of a land and ice bridge across the Bering Strait. During the 1990s growing evidence of earlier settlements (at least 1000 years earlier) has suggested that some peoples may have arrived further south, by sea crossing, in separate and earlier migrations.
Few subjects such as Clovis culture, invoke such heated arguments in New World prehistory as do the origins of Native American populations." -1991, Dennis Stanford, Clovis Origins and Adaptations: An Introductory Perspective.
"In spite of repeated statements to the effect that Clovis is the earliest clearly recognized "culture," "complex," or "people" in the New World, which imply unanimity (that all agree) among archaeologists as to what "Clovis" is, the simple fact is, no consensus definition, concept, or interpretation of Clovis exists." -1999, Michael B. Collins, "Clovis Blade Technology."
Clovis culture or Clovis archaeological culture has been discussed for decades. One of the clearest statements about its makeup is James Warnicas 1966 paper "New discoveries at the Clovis site," which appeared in American Antiquity. Warnicas inventory of key elements of the Llano Complex, as represented within the Clovis horizon of Blackwater Draw, included fluted projectile points (small and large), side-scrapers, hollow-scrapers or spokeshaves, ends-scrapers (some on prismatic blades), end-and-side-scrapers (some on prismatic blades), utilized prismatic blades or knives, flake knives, gravers, hammerstones, small grinding stones (manos), cores with removals by percussion, possible burins, and sundry bone artifacts. Warnicas list was expanded and interpreted in light of Clovis hunting practices and diet by Haynes (1980). In 1999 Collins and Kay carried our understanding of Clovis technology even farther with their landmark study, "Clovis Blade Technology." They discussed the "two major reductive strategies" of the Clovis culture or Clovis archaeological culture (Llano Complex), namely (1) bifacial reduction leading in some cases to fluted points, and (2) prismatic blade production and the manufacture of cores for generating them. - Richard Michael Gramly, PhD. - EVIDENCE OF CLOVIS CULTURE IN NORTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA - WINDY CITY SITE, PISCATAQUIS CO., MAINE.
Collins, Michael B. (and Marvin Kay), 1999, "Clovis Blade Technology." University of Texas Pres. Austin.
Gramly, Richard Michael, 2004, "The Upper/Lower Wheeler Dam sites: Clovis in the Upper Magalloway River Valley, NW Maine." The Amateur Archaeologist 11 (1): pp. 25-46.
Haynes, C. Vance, 1980, "The Clovis Culture." Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): pp. 115-121.
Payne, James, 1987, "Windy City (154-16): A Paleoindian Lithic Workshop in Maine." M.A. thesis. Institute for Quaternary Studies, University of Maine, Orono.
Pollock, Stephen G., Nathan D. Hamilton and Robson Bonnichsen,1999, "Chert From the Munsungan Lake Fromation (Maine) in Paleoamerican Archaeological Sites in Northeastern North America: Recognition of its Occurrence and Distribution." Journal of Archaeological Science 26: pp. 269-93.
Warnica, James M., 1966, "New Discoveries at the Clovis Site," American Antiquity 31: pp. 345-57.