Sociology Index



Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning whereby a neutral stimulus is paired with another stimulus that naturally elicits a certain response; the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the same response as the stimulus that automatically elicits the response. Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus on its own. Implications for therapies and treatments using classical conditioning differ from operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the process by which an individual's behavior is shaped by Reinforcement, or by Punishment.

Difference Between Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning

There are two competing theories of how classical conditioning works. Classical conditioning, discovered by Ivan Pavlov, and operant conditioning, discovered by B. F. Skinner, shape our behaviors. Stimuli, consequences and rewards are the factors that guide responses in various situations. It is important to distinguish the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In psychology, implications for therapies and treatments using classical conditioning differ from operant conditioning. Stimulus-response theory of classical conditioning suggests that an association to the unconditioned stimulus is made with the conditioned stimulus within the brain, but without involving conscious thought. Dr. Ivan Pavlov is the father of classical conditioning. Dr. Ivan Pavlov rang a bell before presenting the dogs with food and measured their salivary response. Pavlov noticed that the dogs would begin to salivate at the sound of the bell, even without the food presented. The bell was the anticipatory event that led to food. Pavlov's dogs had been classically conditioned to associate the ringing of a bell with the presentation of food. Real-world classical conditioning examples are near perfect parallels for Pavlov's original experiment. The familiar smell of pizza fresh out of the oven makes you salivate, even before you take your first bite. The aroma of the food to come serves the same role as Pavlov's ringing bell.

Classical Conditioning: Eliciting the Right Response
Robert T. Tauber, The Behrend College, Penn State-Erie, NASSP Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 526, (1990).
Although techniques such as behavior modification and reinforcement receive more attention, classical conditioning is one means by which educators can evoke more positive student feelings toward school and school subjects.

The Role of Affect in Attitude Formation: A Classical Conditioning Approach
John Kim, Mukesh Bhargava, Oakland University, Jeen-Su Lim, University of Toledo.
This study investigates the role of affect in attitude formation. Two experiments, using established conditioning procedures, assessed the impact of affect on attitude formation. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that affect can influence attitudes even in the absence of product beliefs. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that affect plays as important or more important a role than the belief mechanism in attitude formation, depending on the number of repetitions.

Dynamics of a classical conditioning model
Balkenius, C. (1999). Dynamics of a classical conditioning model. Autonomous Robots.
Abstract: Classical conditioning is a basic learning mechanism in animals and can be found in almost all organisms. If we want to construct robots with abilities matching those of their biological counterparts, this is one of the learning mechanisms that needs to be implemented first.
This article describes a computational model of classical conditioning where the goal of learning is assumed to be the prediction of a temporally discounted reward or punishment based on the current stimulus situation. The model is well suited for robotic implementation as it models a number of classical conditioning paradigms and learning in the model is guaranteed to converge with arbitrarily complex stimulus sequences.

Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning - An example of classical conditioning involved the salivary conditioning of Pavlov's dogs. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs, Pavlov noticed that, rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat powder, an innate response to food that he called the unconditioned response, the dogs began to salivate in the presence of the lab technician who normally fed them.

Pavlov called these psychic secretions. Pavlov used bells to call the dogs to their food and, after a few repetitions, the dogs started to salivate in response to the bell. Thus, a neutral stimulus became a conditioned stimulus as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus. This classic example of classical conditioning, Pavlov referred to as learned relationship and a conditional reflex.