The term Civilization is used by archaeologists and anthropologists to describe societies that exhibit complex culture and social organization. Characteristics of complexity of civilization can include the presence of cities, occupational specialization, intensive agricultural production, social stratification, long distance trade and commerce, monumental public architecture, writing and other intellectual achievements.
Using these characteristics it is possible to identify many ancient societies like the Babylonians, Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks, Romans and the Maya of Mesoamerica as civilizations. Social scientists often prefer to avoid the term civilization because it was used in a moral sense by Europeans during the 19th and early 20th century to suggest a contrast between civilized societies and uncivilized primitive people and became part of an ideology upholding colonial domination.
The Arab's Impact on European Civilization - By: Abbas Mahmoud Al-Akkad - Modern pattern of life spread in the East along with other manifestations of European civilization. The prevalence of both elements had an immediate effect on social behavior and its basis. The good and the bad faced each other as is normally witnessed in all quick changes. Seldom does any social change take place without changing the family, common traditions and the relationship between the classes.
Cosmos & Civilization is an electronic magazine exploring the nature of the cosmos and civilization within. This is your civilization, the one your children and grandchildren will live in. Earth's several civilizations have been integrated into one civilization for humanity. It is changing rapidly and at times in an apparently chaotic manner. Conflicting agendas attempt to pull it in different directions. Covers important topics that affect our civlization: - When are critical junctions?- How long will homo sapiens last? - What technologies influence civlization the most? - Are we likely to encounter other civilizations?
Positivism and the Crisis of Western Civilization - The Epistemological Support of Totalitarianism. Every step forward on the way toward substituting more efficient methods of production for the obsolete methods of the precapitalistic ages met with fanatical hostility on the part of those whose vested interests were in the short run hurt by any innovation. The landed interest of the aristocrats was no less anxious to preserve the economic system of the ancien régime than were the rioting workingmen who destroyed machines and demolished factory buildings. But the cause of innovation was supported by the new science of political economy, while the cause of the obsolete methods of production lacked a tenable ideological basis.