Sociology Index


Human Capital Accumulation

Capital is accumulation of goods or wealth used for the production of other goods and services rather than for immediate or personal use. If a computer is used just to play games, then it is not considered capital.

If a computer is used to generate revenue it can be considered capital. Capital is central to a capitalist economic system. Other than economic or financial capital, we also have human capital, social capital or individual capital.

The Effects of Social Group Membership and Social Capital Resources on Careers - Rochelle Parks-Yancy, Texas Southern University - Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, 515-545 (2006) - Using a nationally representative sample, this study looks at the effects of race, gender, and social capital resources on two career measures: (a) earnings and (b) promotions.

The author finds that blacks suffer a social capital deficit relative to whites and that men and whites’ career advantages accumulate over time, whereas blacks’ disadvantages accumulate, as well. Thus, race, gender, and social capital resources contribute to unequal career trajectories, and these results generalize to the U.S. population.

Human Capital is the talents and capabilities that individuals contribute to the process of production. Human capital also refers to the sum total of skills and knowledge embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.

Physical capital in an organization would be the things that are owned by the corporation - the typewriters, computers, buildings, manufacturing equipment, etc. The physical capital might be worth a lot or very little. There are a variety of well defined measures by which the value of the physical capital might be defined.

Social Capital is ‘trust, norms and networks’ that facilitate cooperation for mutual benefit -Putnam

"social capital" is an analogous term to "human capital" which was itself created by analogy to the term "physical capital." - Michael B. Spring

Capital accumulation is the process of accumulating resources for use in the production of goods and services. Private capital accumulation takes place when productive capacity exceeds the immediate needs for consumption. For example, a farmer can accumulate capital (stored grains, improved equipment etc.) during years of good harvests and good farm revenues.

Occupational Segregation, Human Capital, and Motherhood - Black Women's Higher Exit Rates from Full-time Employment 
LORI L. REID, Florida State University - Gender & Society, Vol. 16, No. 5, 728-747 (2002) Sociologists for Women in Society
Recent research indicates that among young women, Blacks have lower employment rates than whites.