Calvinism is a Christian doctrine associated with John Calvin (1509-1564). John Calvin's international influence on the development of the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation began at the age of 25, when he started work on his first edition of the Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1534.
Calvinism is important for sociologists as a component of the Protestant ethic, a set of social and religious ideas considered favorable to the development of capitalism. Calvinism is an approach to the Christian life emphasizeing God's sovereignty in all things. Calvinism falls within the realm of Protestant Christianity and is sometimes called the Reformed tradition or Reformed theology.
From natural disability to
the moral man: Calvinism and the history of psychology
Chris Goodey, East Ham, London - History of the Human Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1-29 (2001)
Some humanist theologians within the French Reformed Church in the 17th century developed the notion that a disability of the intellect could exist in nature independently of any moral defect, freeing its possessors from any obligations of natural law. Sharpened by disputes with the church leadership, this notion began to suggest a species-type classification that threatened to override the importance of the boundary between elect and reprobate in the doctrine of predestination.
Book Review: The Disciplinary Revolution. Calvinism and the Rise of the State in Early Modern Europe - Graeme Murdock - European History Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 1, 144-147 (2005).