Ascription is assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. The principle of merit and meritocracy is consistent with liberal theory and assumes equality of opportunity and occupational advancement based on achievement rather than ascription. Open class ideology or concept claims that society's status system is based on achievement and not on ascription. There are many statuses that can be considered a mixture of achievement and ascription. Ascription is one way sociologists explain why social stratification occurs. Ascription occurs when social class or stratum placement is primarily hereditary. Ascription, in sociology, is a way to acquire status, along with achievement or chance. Ascription in philosophy is related to belief ascription. Ascription in a sense is also the assigning to a cause or source.
Ascription is the process whereby in the event of a parent failing to return the ethnic group collection form, the school can use its best judgement to determine the ethnic group and ethnic identity of the pupil. This process is also known as third party ascription. If ascription is to be carried out, there are certain safeguards that need to be in place: The information should be requested from the parent by post along with a letter that explains that the school will ascribe an ethnic group to their child if there is no response and parents do not formally refuse to provide this information. Parents should be informed of the school's decision and given the opportunity to see, amend or remove the ethnic group record. After such ascription, the ethnic group record will be marked as 'ascribed by the school'.
When should schools decide if ascription is necessary? To ensure that schools have a consistent policy on ascription for all pupils, we recommend that the decision to undertake ascription is taken before any correspondence to parents have been sent out. The letter to parents should then be amended to include a paragraph on ascription as shown on the model letter contained in the guidance document. Schools can decide to ascribe ethnicity where pupil post has failed. If this happens, schools must, for all the outstanding pupils, undertake the ascription process as described in the guidance, including the process of contacting those parents used a stamped envelope and the amended model letters.
Why is ascription voluntary rather than compulsory for schools?
We want to give schools the option to carry out ascription if this is the only opportunity that schools will have to collect this data in order to make monitoring possible. Head teachers with the support of their staff are best placed to make the decision whether ascription is desirable or not in their schools. Therefore ascription is voluntary and schools should not be put under pressure to undertake ascription.
If undertaking ascription, on what should a decision be based on determining a
pupil's ethnic group?
Those responsible for carrying out ascription in schools are advised to consult the member of staff most familiar with the pupil in question, this may also include Teaching Assistants and bilingual support staff.
Achievement and ascription in educational attainment: genetic and environmental influences on adolescent schooling.
The classic (status attainment) model of educational and occupational attainment suffers from three related shortcomings when used as a tool for comparative or policy-oriented research on social mobility.
Ascription in Modern Societies - Leon Mayhew. Abstract: While “ascription” occupies a central place in Parsons' scheme, some of its positive functions in a highly differentiated system have been underemphasized. Because of its economical use of established social arrangements, ascription contributes to the performance of all of the system functions, pattern maintenance, integration, goal, attainment and adaptation. The institutionalization of mass education and civil rights breaks down some ascription, but, at the same time, increases for the larger society the useability of the internal organization of its ascriptively defined groupings.
Factor of Education in Transition from Ascription to Achievement - Abdullah Ozbolat. Abstract: This study is basically meant by the transition from ascription to achievement that socioeconomic status started to be determined by achievement through education rather than role of father. Gerdibi villagers were chosen due to its structure that leads to geographic mobility from parents to children and intergenerational social mobility through education. In the sample of Gerdibi villagers, some findings showed that education is an effective factor in transition from ascription to achievement. Results of area study revealed that the differentiation of educational background from parents to children according to education between generation, profession and socioeconomic status also changed the professional status between generations and thus, explanation of background of current socioeconomic status changed.
The Ascription of Responsibility Questionnaire: development and empirical extensions. - Hakstian AR, Suedfeld P, Ballard EJ, Rank DS. Abstract: This article describes the development of the Ascription of Responsibility Questionnaire (ARQ).
In Study 1, item analytic and factor analytic procedures were used, with a data set based on 251 subjects, to reduce an initial pool of 92 Likert Scale items to 41 items that were structured by four clear, independent ascription tendencies, or ways in which people ascribe responsibility.
In Study 2, this factorial structure was confirmed on a sample of 403 subjects. From the responses in both studies, reliabilities of the four ascription of responsibility scales were assessed. On the basis of a pooled sample, norms were developed. Construct validity assessment was begun by correlating scores, in both studies, on the ascription of responsibility scales with a number of conceptually related standardized and semistandardized scales, as well as with a number of demographic and personological variables that might be related to attributional and attitudinal tendencies.
Anderson’s Envelope: The Modal Logic of Ascription - Davide Grossi.
The paper proposes a formal analysis of the ascriptive view of norms as resulting from pulling together Anderson’s reductionist approach, the analysis of counts-as, and a novel modal approach to the formal representation of languages in logic.
The Ascription of Responsibility and Rights - H. L. A. Hart.