Books on Apartheid, Apartheid
Apartheid Legislation in South Africa - Nationalist Government in South Africa enacted laws to define and enforce segregation. South Africa's apartheid was formalised through laws. The main laws are described below.
Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of
Prohibited marriages between white people and people of other races.
Immorality Amendment Act, Act No 21 of 1950;
amended in 1957 (Act 23)
Prohibited adultery, attempted adultery or related immoral acts (read extra-marital sex) between white and black people.
Population Registration Act, Act No 30 of 1950
Led to the creation of a national register in which every person's race was recorded.
Group Areas Act, Act No 41 of 1950
Forced physical separation between races by creating different residential areas for different races.
Suppression of Communism Act, Act No 44 of 1950
Outlawed communism and the Community Party in South Africa. Communism was defined so broadly that it covered any call for radical change.
Bantu Building Workers Act, Act No 27 of 1951
Allowed black people to be trained as artisans in the building trade, something previously reserved for whites only, but they had to work within an area designated for blacks.
Separate Representation of Voters Act, Act No 46 of 1951
Together with the 1956 amendment, this act led to the removal of Coloureds from the common voters' roll.
Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act, Act No 52 of 1951
Gave the Minister of Native Affairs the power to remove blacks from public or privately owned land and to establishment resettlement camps to house these displaced people.
Bantu Authorities Act, Act No 68 of 1951
Provided for the establishment of black homelands and regional authorities and abolished the Native Representative Council.
Natives Laws Amendment Act of 1952
Narrowed the definition of the category of blacks who had the right of permanent residence in towns.
Natives (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act, Act No 67 of 1952
Commonly known as the Pass Laws, this ironically named act forced black people to carry identification with them at all times.
Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act of 1953
Prohibited strike action by blacks.
Bantu Education Act, Act No 47 of 1953
Established a Black Education Department in the Department of Native Affairs which would compile a curriculum that suited the "nature and requirements of the black people".
Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49
Forced segregation in all public amenities, public buildings, and public transport with the aim of eliminating contact between whites and other races.
Natives Resettlement Act, Act No 19 of 1954
Group Areas Development Act, Act No 69 of 1955
Natives (Prohibition of Interdicts) Act, Act No 64 of 1956
Denied black people the option of appealing to the courts against forced removals.
Bantu Investment Corporation Act, Act No 34 of 1959
Provided for the creation of financial, commercial, and industrial schemes in areas designated for black people.
Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959
Put an end to black students attending white universities (mainly the universities of Cape Town and Witwatersrand).
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act, Act No 46 of 1959
Classified black people into eight ethnic groups.
Coloured Persons Communal Reserves Act, Act No 3 of 1961
Preservation of Coloured Areas Act, Act No 31 of 1961
Urban Bantu Councils Act, Act No 79 of 1961
Created black councils in urban areas that were suppoed to be tied to the authorities running the related ethnic homeland.
Terrorism Act of 1967
Allowed for indefinite detention without trial and established BOSS, the Bureau of State Security, which was responsible for the internal security of South Africa.
Bantu Homelands Citizens Act of 1970
Compelled all black people to become a citizen of the homeland that responded to their ethnic group, regardless of whether they'd ever lived there or not, and removed their South African citizenship.
The Natives Land Act, No 27 of 1913 and The Natives (Urban Areas) Act of 1923. The former made it illegal for blacks to purchase or lease land from whites except in reserves; this restricted black occupancy to less than eight per cent of South Africa's land.