Sociology Index

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APARTHEID

Apartheid is a policy of racial segregation maintained in South Africa from 1948 to 1991. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separation’. "American Apartheid" is the unfair and brutal treatment of Native Americans and Africans in the United States. The Apartheid policy established the doctrine of separate development. South African blacks were segregated into reserves known as homelands and subjected to residential and occupational restrictions. Apartheid policy was maintained by a range of laws that included the prohibition of inter-racial sex or marriage. Apartheid policy outlawed racially integrated political and social organization.

Apartheid Legislation in South Africa. A white-minority government, faced with international pressures and internal conflict, began dismantling apartheid in the late 1980's and extended the right to vote on equal terms to all South African adults. Apartheid policy was designed to separate black and white South Africans, to dominate and control blacks, and to enrich white South Africans at the expense of the oppressed people. The racial tyranny of apartheid ended with a negotiated transition to a non-racial democracy.

South African Jews and Apartheid - F.H. Adler. Abstract: Jews were overwhelmingly over-represented among Whites in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa. Adler attempts to account for both responses, activism and compliance, by examining the dilemmas faced by South African Jewry as a relatively small group of suspect Others living at the sufferance of the dominant and traditionally antisemitic Afrikaners. Anti-apartheid activism was deeply rooted in Jewish culture and values.

American Apartheid shows how the black ghetto was created by whites during the first half of the twentieth century in order to isolate growing urban black populations. Despite the Fair Housing Act of 1968, segregation is perpetuated today through institutional practices and governmental policies. In many urban areas the degree of black segregation can be called “hypersegregation.” American Apartheid links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the deliberate segregation they experience in American cities. American Apartheid is a sober challenge to those who argue that race is of declining significance in the United States today. Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton demonstrate that this systematic segregation of African Americans leads inexorably to the creation of underclass communities during periods of economic downturn. As ghetto residents adapt to this increasingly harsh environment under a climate of racial isolation, they evolve attitudes, behaviors, and practices that further marginalize their neighborhoods and undermine their chances of success in mainstream American society.

India’s Apartheid - The Caste System

In what was perhaps a controversial but telling comparison, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, on December 27, 2006, likened discrimination against Dalits in India to the apartheid system in South Africa. India’s own Prime Minister has compared caste discrimination to apartheid, which is the worst example of racial discrimination. The irony is that it was India that suggested the definition in the CERD be expanded for ‘descent-based discrimination’ to include caste when the treaty was being drafted. Online Edition of India's National Newspaper - The Hindu, Saturday, Aug 18, 2007. Balakrishnan Rajagopal.

Apartheid Abstracts

Education and Racial Inequality in Post-Apartheid South Africa - Malcolm Keswell. Abstract: Has the end of Apartheid made South African labor markets meritocratic? Presents an analytical framework with testable hypotheses concerning equal opportunity. It is demonstrated that while opportunities have been significantly equalized. A new form of racial inequality has emerged through inequality in the rewards to effort. Differences in the returns to education now account for about 40% of the White-African wage differential, whereas a decade ago this effect was virtually zero.

WHY SOUTH AFRICA'S APARTHEID ECONOMY FAILED - ANTON D. LOWENBERG, California State Univ Northridge.
Labor market regulation and industrial decentralization policy inhibited efficient resource utilization. Apartheid educational policies generated skill shortages. The administrative and defense costs of implementing apartheid were onerous and rising. The internal dynamics of the system dictated the retrenchment of apartheid, which would have occurred even without foreign sanctions.
 

Documenting the trauma of apartheid: Long Night's Journey into Day and South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission - Ashley Dawson. If the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has become an instance of conflict resolution, documentary accounts suggest that the nationally televised hearings laid bare enduring wounds in the body politic just as much as they healed such wounds. Through its dialectical narrative account of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Long Night's Journey Into Day creates a searing account of the lacunae in South Africa's celebrated transition to democracy. 

Anti-Apartheid and Solidarity Movements

The Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1959-1979 - by E.S Reddy

Anti-Apartheid Movements in Western Europe - by Kader and Louise Asmal, March 1974

Anti-Apartheid Movement and the United Nations - Paper presented by E.S Reddy to the symposium on "The Anti-Apartheid Movement: a 40-year Perspective," London, 26  June 1999

Anti-Apartheid Workshop, St Antony’s College, Oxford - Abstract- Christabel Gurney

Anti-Apartheid Activism in Britain: The AAM, the BEM/BSC and the wider concerns of the Black community regarding anti-apartheid activism in Britain - Elizabeth Williams , Birkbeck College, University of London

African Freedom Struggle - in Denmark: Organisations as Policy Developers and Policy Advocates - Christopher Munthe Morgenstierne, University of Copenhagen

Black Activism and the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain - Elizabeth Williams

Twenty Years of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement - Speech by E.S.Reddy, London, 26 June 1979.

Archives of the Anti-Apartheid Movement

"When the Boycott Began to Bite". Christabel Gurney describes the origins of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, History Today, London, June 1999.

'A Great Cause'. The origins of the Anti-Apartheid Movement,  June 1959? March 1960. Article by Christabel Gurney, 1999.

The Anti-Apartheid Movement: A 40-year Perspective. Report of the Symposium Organised by the Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives Committee to Mark the 40th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, London, 25-26 June 1999.

The Anti-Apartheid Movement, Britain and South Africa: Anti-Apartheid Protest vs Real Politik. A History of the AAM and its Influence on the British Government's Policy towards South Africa in 1964. Dissertation by Arianna Lissoni, 15 September 2000.

"Revisiting 'Strange Fruit': an Exploration of Culture and Anti-Apartheid Activism" - Frankie Nicole Weaver.

Anti-Apartheid, "NEW SOCIAL MOVEMENTS" and the globalization of politics - Dr. Hakan Thorn, Department of Sociology, Gothenburg University.

Nederland tegen apartheid? - Genevieve Klein, University of Pretoria.

Turbulent priests or movement intellectuals? Christian voices and international opposition to apartheid in the 1950s - Rob Skinner, University of Sussex.

From Passive Resistance to Armed Struggle. Press release by the Irish anti-Apartheid Movement, 24 February 1987.

Parliaments and the Struggle against Apartheid. Article by E.S. Reddy, August 1987.

"Free Nelson Mandela". An Account of the Campaign for Free Nelson Mandela and all other Political Prisoners in South Africa. Article by E.S. Reddy, July 1988.

United Nations, the Anti-Apartheid Movement and Campaign for Arms Embargo against South Africa. Statements, papers and letters by Abdul S. Minty, honorary secretary of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement and director, World Campaign against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa.

Some Reflections on Irish Solidarity with the Struggle Against Apartheid, by Rafique Mottiar, 15 October 1997.

Perspectives on the International Anti-Apartheid Strugggle: Solidarity and Social Movements - African Studies, St Antony’s College, University of Oxford ,Saturday 31 May 2003.