Apartheid is the Afrikaans word meaning separation. "American Apartheid" is the unfair and brutal treatment of Native Americans and Africans in the United States. Apartheid is a policy of racial segregation maintained in South Africa from 1948 to 1991. The Apartheid policy established the doctrine of separate development. South African blacks were segregated into reserves known as homelands and subjected to residential and occupational restrictions. Apartheid policy was maintained by a range of laws that included the prohibition of inter-racial sex or marriage. Apartheid policy outlawed racially integrated political and social organizations.
A white-minority government, faced with international pressures and internal conflict, began dismantling apartheid in the late 1980's and extended the right to vote on equal terms to all South African adults. Apartheid policy was designed to separate black and white South Africans, to dominate and control blacks, and to enrich white South Africans at the expense of the oppressed people. The racial tyranny of apartheid ended with a negotiated transition to a non-racial democracy.
Education and Racial Inequality
in Post-Apartheid South Africa - Malcolm Keswell
Abstract: Has the end of Apartheid made South African labor markets meritocratic? Presents an analytical framework with testable hypotheses concerning equal opportunity. It is demonstrated that while opportunities have been significantly equalized. A new form of racial inequality has emerged through inequality in the rewards to effort. Differences in the returns to education now account for about 40% of the White-African wage differential, whereas a decade ago this effect was virtually zero.
WHY SOUTH AFRICA'S
APARTHEID ECONOMY FAILED - ANTON D. LOWENBERG, California State Univ
Labor market regulation and industrial decentralization policy inhibited efficient resource utilization. Apartheid educational policies generated skill shortages. The administrative and defense costs of implementing apartheid were onerous and rising. The internal dynamics of the system dictated the retrenchment of apartheid, which would have occurred even without foreign sanctions.
Documenting the trauma of apartheid: Long Night's Journey into Day and South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission - Ashley Dawson
If the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has become an instance of conflict resolution, documentary accounts suggest that the nationally televised hearings laid bare enduring wounds in the body politic just as much as they healed such wounds. While media coverage of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission sessions often folded these social tensions into a celebratory model of national unity, accounts of the process attentive to the suffering of victims tend to unsettle such unificatory discourses disrupting conventional narrative form. Through its dialectical narrative account of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Long Night's Journey Into Day creates a searing account of the lacunae in South Africa's celebrated transition to democracy.
South African Jews and Apartheid -
Patterns of Prejudice, Volume 34, Number 4, October 01, 2000, pp. 23-36(14)
Abstract: Jews were overwhelmingly over-represented among Whites in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa. Adler attempts to account for both responses, activism and compliance, by examining the dilemmas faced by South African Jewry as a relatively small group of suspect Others living at the sufferance of the dominant and traditionally antisemitic Afrikaners. Anti-apartheid activism was deeply rooted in Jewish culture and values.
The Caste System - Indias Apartheid ?
Online Edition of India's National Newspaper - The Hindu,
Saturday, Aug 18, 2007. Balakrishnan Rajagopal - is Ford International Associate
Professor of Law and Development and Director, MIT Program on Human Rights and
Justice. He is currently leading a collaborative effort between MIT and
Navsarjan, a major Dalit NGO in Gujarat, on the elimination of manual
In what was perhaps a controversial but telling comparison, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, on December 27, 2006, likened discrimination against Dalits in India to the apartheid system in South Africa.
Indias own Prime Minister has compared caste
discrimination to apartheid, which is the worst example of racial discrimination. The
irony is that it was India that suggested the definition in the CERD be expanded for
descent-based discrimination to include caste when the treaty was being
Anti-Apartheid and Solidarity Movements
The Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1959-1979 - by E.S Reddy
Anti-Apartheid Movements in Western Europe - by Kader and Louise Asmal, March 1974
Anti-Apartheid Movement and the United Nations - Paper presented by E.S Reddy to the symposium on "The Anti-Apartheid Movement: a 40-year Perspective," London, 26 June 1999
Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House - Lucy McCann
Anti-Apartheid Workshop, St Antonys College, Oxford - Abstract- Christabel Gurney
Anti-Apartheid Activism in Britain: The AAM, the BEM/BSC and the wider concerns of the Black community regarding anti-apartheid activism in Britain - Elizabeth Williams , Birkbeck College, University of London
African Freedom Struggle - in Denmark: Organisations as Policy Developers and Policy Advocates - Christopher Munthe Morgenstierne, University of Copenhagen
Black Activism and the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain - Elizabeth Williams
Twenty Years of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement - Speech by E.S.Reddy, London, 26 June 1979
Archives of the Anti-Apartheid Movement
"When the Boycott Began to Bite". Christabel Gurney describes the origins of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, History Today, London, June 1999
'A Great Cause'. The origins of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, June 1959?March 1960. Article by Christabel Gurney, 1999
The Anti-Apartheid Movement: A 40-year Perspective. Report of the Symposium Organised by the Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives Committee to Mark the 40th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, London, 25-26 June 1999
The Anti-Apartheid Movement, Britain and South Africa: Anti-Apartheid Protest vs Real Politik. A History of the AAM and its Influence on the British Government's Policy towards South Africa in 1964. Dissertation by Arianna Lissoni, 15 September 2000
"Hanging on a Tree" - Vanessa Redgrave
"Revisiting 'Strange Fruit': an Exploration of Culture and Anti-Apartheid Activism" - Frankie Nicole Weaver
American Negro Leadership Conference on Africa (ANLCA): Resolutions, 1962 and 1964
The African-American Manifesto on Southern Africa, 1976
American Supporters of the Defiance Campaign. Statement by George Houser at a meeting of the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid on 25 June 1982, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the "Campaign of Defiance against Unjust Laws".
United Nations Centre Against Apartheid - Relations between the United States and South Africa by George Houser, 11 August 1984
Reagan Administration's Policy of "Constructive Engagement" and the Arms Embargo Against South Africa. Statement before the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid by Richard Knight, American Committee on Africa, April 3, 1984
"Southern Africa: Freedom and Peace". Addresses to the United Nations by Canon L John Collins, 1965-1979
Cultural Boycotts, Statement by Enuga S. Reddy, Director of U.N. Centre Against Apartheid at a press briefing - London, January 11, 1984
Anti-Apartheid, "NEW SOCIAL MOVEMENTS" and the globalization of politics - Dr. Hakan Thorn, Department of Sociology, Gothenburg University
Nederland tegen apartheid? - Genevieve Klein, University of Pretoria
Abstract - Christopher Morgenstierne
Turbulent priests or movement intellectuals? Christian voices and international opposition to apartheid in the 1950s - Rob Skinner, University of Sussex
From Passive Resistance to Armed Struggle. Press release by the Irish anti-Apartheid Movement, 24 February 1987
Parliaments and the Struggle against Apartheid. Article by E.S. Reddy, August 1987
"Free Nelson Mandela". An Account of the Campaign for Free Nelson Mandela and all other Political Prisoners in South Africa. Article by E.S. Reddy, July 1988
United Nations, the Anti-Apartheid Movement and Campaign for Arms Embargo against South Africa. Statements, papers and letters by Abdul S. Minty, honorary secretary of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement and director, World Campaign against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa.
Some Reflections on Irish Solidarity with the Struggle Against Apartheid, by Rafique Mottiar, 15 October 1997
Perspectives on the International Anti-Apartheid Strugggle: Solidarity and Social Movements - African Studies, St Antonys College, University of Oxford , Day Workshop, 31 May 2003
Perspectives on the International Anti-Apartheid Strugggle: Solidarity and Social Movements - African Studies, St Antonys College, University of Oxford ,Saturday 31 May 2003
Conference on International Anti-Apartheid Movements in South Africas Freedom Struggle: Lessons for Today , International Convention Centre, Durban, 10-13 October 2004
The Road to Democracy in South Africa - University of South Africa 2008.
Apartheid in South Africa (Witness to History) Book by David Downing
Crossing the Line: A Year in the Land of Apartheid Book by William Finnegan
Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? Book by James L. Gibson
Race for Sanctions: African Americans Against Apartheid, 1946-1994 by Francis Njubi Nesbitt
Is Apartheid Really Dead: Pan Africanist Working Class Cultural Critical Perspectives Julian Kunnie
American Apartheid Book by James S. Wright.