Masculine Female, Masculinization
Androgyny is a personality which holds a balance of feminine and masculine characteristics. An androgynous person would be comfortable displaying both characteristics and able to move back and forth between the two. Feminism writers believe gender androgyny as a source of liberation from polarized cultural ideas of masculine and feminine.
Psychological Androgyny -
A Review of the Research
Androgyny represents a combination of personality characteristics traditionally associated with men (masculine) and those associated with women (feminine). This critical review provides an overview of basic assumptions, measures, research topics, and results of research in the androgyny literature. Psychological androgyny research on developmental perspectives emphasizes the importance of focusing upon how individuals systematically maintain and modify their perceptions and experiences as men and women over the life span.
Development of a Measure
of Androgyny for Young Adolescents
The construct of psychological androgyny or the co-presence of masculine and feminine traits, has been studied in college students as well as older adults. The ontogeny of androgyny has received limited empirical evidence attention, in part because of the lack of available instruments.
Desirable and undesirable
androgyny: a prescription for the twenty-first century - Woodhill B.M.; Samuels C. - Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 13, Number 1, March 2004.
Abstract: If femininity and masculinity are understood as consisting of both positive and negative traits and androgyny is a combination of feminine and masculine traits, then logically androgynous people could manifest any number and combination of positive and negative traits. The traditional notion of androgyny is as an identity that consists of a balance of positive feminine and positive masculine traits. A balance of negative feminine and negative masculine traits could also constitute a part of androgyny, creating the possibility of an undesirable or negative androgyny.
Training Men and Women for Androgynous Behaviors in Organizations
Alice G. Sargent - Group & Organization Management, Vol. 6, No. 3, 302-311 (1981)
Organizational problems that arise from traditional sex-role behavior are discussed. Androgyny is presented as a concept that can be integrated with behavioral-science training programs, especially human-resource-management programs. Androgyny is viewed as an effective mixture of behaviors that traditionally have been termed "masculine" and "feminine."
Androgyny - Is it Really the Product of Educated, Middle-Class Western Societies
Shashi Ravinder, University of Wollongong
This article examines the sex role identity of college students in India and in Australia and empirically tests the validity of the prediction that androgyny is the product of educated, middle-class, Western societies. Results reveal that sex role transcendence, rather than androgyny, is the product of a Western society such as Australia. Androgyny, on the other hand, was found to be more predominant in certain traditional cultures, such as India, and was particularly predominant among Indian males.