Karl Marx claimed that human alienation was created by a social structure and socially structured separation between humans and their work. Alienation reached its highest intensity in capitalist society where the great mass of the population depended for subsistence on working under the direction of others. The competitive nature of the workplace also caused alienation, or separated, workers from each other.The term alienation was used widely in German philosophy. Alienation is separation of individuals from control and direction of their social life.
In the 19th century, Philippe Pinel popularized a new understanding of mental alienation, particularly through his 'medical-philosophical treatise.' For the millions of tribals of India resisting alienation is more important than democracy. Both alienation and ideology are intertwined in everyday life and are directed to everyday life. Therefore, the day-to-day is placed in this relationship as a medium between the general economic structure of society and that of human beings.
Alienation and Affect - by Warren D. TenHouten.
Alienation has objective, social-structural determinants, yet is experienced subjectively as a psychological state involving both emotion and cognition. Part I considers conceptualizations of alienation and affect in historical context, emphasizing Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Simmel, and Weber. Part II develops a theory of the affective bases of Seeman’s original five varieties of alienation – normlessness, meaninglessness, self-estrangement, cultural estrangement, and powerlessness. The book develops the affective bases of seven distinct varieties of alienation. This work synthesizes classical and contemporary alienation theory and the sociology of emotions. It contributes to political sociology, and finds application in social psychiatry and related health and social-service fields that treat traumatized and highly alienated individuals.
School alienation – Theoretical approaches
and educational research
Tina Hascher, Andreas Hadjar.
This article critically examines the research on school alienation, with a focus on primary and secondary education. In this overview, we consider definitions, general conceptual approaches and specific concepts of school alienation, as well as methodological issues, including operationalisations of school alienation. Based on our identification of the strengths and shortcomings of previous theoretical and empirical approaches, we propose a definition and model of school alienation that may guide future research efforts. We argue that future research on school alienation needs to focus on the processes by which school alienation manifests itself; moreover, it must take into account how school alienation can differ with regard to various domains in school (alienation from learning, from teachers, from classmates). Overall, we argue that instead of an emphasis on general alienation from school, a more specific approach to school alienation is required.
Ideology and alienation: A necessary
Maria Norma Alcantara Brandão Holanda
Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Faculdade de Serviço Social, Maceió, AL, Brazil.
Abstract: The study aims to reflect on the ontological foundations and roles in society of ideology and alienation, based on the thought of Georg Lukács (2013) in his work 'Toward the Ontology of Social Being'. The article is structured in two distinct and connected moments, discussing first ideology and the fundamental base of the concepts. Then, the work debates alienation as an ideological phenomenon, particularly when it comes to reifications and their relevance to the critique of capitalism. Based on these reflections, this article aims to examine the categories of ideology and alienation, their ontological foundations, determinations, and the connections they have to each other. The article is organized into two distinct and connected moments. First, the category of ideology is presented, showing its fundamental bases. Then, the alienation is explored, as a phenomenon that is also ideological (particularly regarding the reification), as a way of being of alienations in capitalism, an aspect that is observed in the “Lukacsian” ontology.
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