Sociology Index



Karl Marx claimed that human alienation was created by a social structure and socially structured separation between humans and their work. Alienation reached its highest intensity in capitalist society where the great mass of the population depended for subsistence on working under the direction of others. The competitive nature of the workplace also caused alienation, or separated, workers from each other.The term alienation was used widely in German philosophy. Alienation is separation of individuals from control and direction of their social life. In the 19th century, Philippe Pinel popularized a new understanding of mental alienation, particularly through his 'medical-philosophical treatise.' For the millions of tribals of India resisting alienation is more important than democracy.  Both alienation and ideology are intertwined in everyday life and are directed to everyday life. Therefore, the day-to-day is placed in this relationship as a medium between the general economic structure of society and that of human beings.

Alienation and Affect - by Warren D. TenHouten.
Alienation has objective, social-structural determinants, yet is experienced subjectively as a psychological state involving both emotion and cognition. Part I considers conceptualizations of alienation and affect in historical context, emphasizing Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Simmel, and Weber. Part II develops a theory of the affective bases of Seeman’s original five varieties of alienation – normlessness, meaninglessness, self-estrangement, cultural estrangement, and powerlessness. The book develops the affective bases of seven distinct varieties of alienation. This work synthesizes classical and contemporary alienation theory and the sociology of emotions. It contributes to political sociology, and finds application in social psychiatry and related health and social-service fields that treat traumatized and highly alienated individuals.

School alienation – Theoretical approaches and educational research
Tina Hascher, Andreas Hadjar.
This article critically examines the research on school alienation, with a focus on primary and secondary education. In this overview, we consider definitions, general conceptual approaches and specific concepts of school alienation, as well as methodological issues, including operationalisations of school alienation. Based on our identification of the strengths and shortcomings of previous theoretical and empirical approaches, we propose a definition and model of school alienation that may guide future research efforts. We argue that future research on school alienation needs to focus on the processes by which school alienation manifests itself; moreover, it must take into account how school alienation can differ with regard to various domains in school (alienation from learning, from teachers, from classmates). Overall, we argue that instead of an emphasis on general alienation from school, a more specific approach to school alienation is required.

Ideology and alienation: A necessary relationship
Maria Norma Alcantara Brandão Holanda
Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Faculdade de Serviço Social, Maceió, AL, Brazil.
Abstract: The study aims to reflect on the ontological foundations and roles in society of ideology and alienation, based on the thought of Georg Lukács (2013) in his work 'Toward the Ontology of Social Being'. The article is structured in two distinct and connected moments, discussing first ideology and the fundamental base of the concepts. Then, the work debates alienation as an ideological phenomenon, particularly when it comes to reifications and their relevance to the critique of capitalism. Based on these reflections, this article aims to examine the categories of ideology and alienation, their ontological foundations, determinations, and the connections they have to each other. The article is organized into two distinct and connected moments. First, the category of ideology is presented, showing its fundamental bases. Then, the alienation is explored, as a phenomenon that is also ideological (particularly regarding the reification), as a way of being of alienations in capitalism, an aspect that is observed in the “Lukacsian” ontology.

Books on Alienation

Murray Greene: Alienation within a Problematic of Substance and Subject, Social Research, vol 33, no. 3, Autumn, 1966.

Ernest Becker: Mill’s Social Psychology and the Great Historical Convergence on the Problem of Alienation, in I.L. Horowitz (ed), The New Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

John Horton: The Dehumanisation of Anomie and Alienation -A Problem in the Ideology of Sociology, British Journal of Sociology, vol 15, no. 4, December 1964.

Joachim Israel: Alienation from Karl Marx to Modern Sociology. New York: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1971.

Andrew Oldenquist: Social Identities and Alienation, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol l l, 1991, pp 53-60.

Erik Allardt: Types of Protest and Alienation, in A.W. Finifter (ed), Alienation and the Social System. New York: John Wiley, 1972. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1964.

D. Dean: Meaning and Measurement of Alienation, American Sociological Review, vol 26, October 1961, pp 753-758.

Dimitrina Dimitrova: Work, Commitment and Alienation, International Social Science Journal, Vol 46, No. 2, June 1994, pp 201-211.

Lewis Feuer: What is Alienation? The Career of a Concept, New Politics, Spring, 1962. Sociology on Trial. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1963.

Erich Fromm: Marx’s Alienation, in D. Wrong and H.L. Gracey (eds), Readings in Introductory Sociology. London: Macmillan, 1972.

Cindy Griffin: Rhetoricising Alienation: Mary Wollstonecraft and the Rhetorical Construction of Women’s Oppression, Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol 80, No. 3, August 1994, pp 293-312.

Walter Heinz: Changes in the Methodology of Alienation Research, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol 11, 1991.

Kenneth Keniston: The Varieties of Alienation -An Attempt at Definition, in A.W. Finifter (ed), Alienation and the Social System. New York: John Wiley, 1972.

Alan Klein: Man Makes Himself -Alienation and Self-Objectification Bodybuilding, Play and Culture, vol 5, No. 4, November 1992.

Lauren Langman: Alienation and Everyday Life -Goffman Meets Marx at the Shopping Mall, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol 11, l991,pp 107-124.

Stephen Lukes: Alienation and Anomie, in P. Laslett and W. Runciman (eds), Philosophy, Politics and Society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1967. Also in A.W. Finifter (ed), Alienation and the Social System. New York: John Wiley, 1972.

Karl Marx: The Notion of Alienation, in L. Coser and B. Rosenberg (eds), Sociological Theory -A Book of Readings. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

M. Meidan: Alienated Labour and Free Activity in Marx’s Thought, Political Science, Vol 41, No. 1, July 1989, pp 59-73.

E.H. Mizruchi: Alienation and Anomie -Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, in I.L. Horowitz (ed), The New Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

G.M. Platt and F. Weinstein: Alienation and the Problem of Social Action, in E.A. Tiryakian (ed), The Phenomenon of Sociology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.

Marvin B. Scott: The Social Sources of Alienation, in I.L. Horowitz (ed), The New Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Martin Tolich: Alienating and Liberating Emotions at Work -Supermarket Clerks’ Performance of Customer Service, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, vol 22, No. 3, October 1993, pp 361-381.

J. Torrance: Estrangement, Alienation and Exploitation -A Sociological Approach to Historical Materialism. London: Macmillan, 1977.