Enculturation is the process by which people acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary in an alien culture. Cultural modification of an individual or groups as a result of long term contact with the people of an alien culture is known as Acculturation. Acculturation is the adoption of or adaptation to an alien culture. Acculturation is a process of cultural transformation initiated by contacts between different cultures. Acculturation takes place as societies experience the transforming impact of international cultural contact. The global trend towards modern economic organization and developed market economies has been accompanied by a process of cultural transformation. While each society experiences a unique process of cultural and economic transformation, there are some common trends that appear to be linked to the development of complex market economies, a wage employment system and urbanization.
Individuals experience acculturation when their social roles and socialization are shaped by norms and values largely foreign to their native culture. Educational and occupational experiences are the primary agents of the individual's acculturation process. Some sociologists use the term acculturation to refer simply to the process of learning and absorbing a culture, making it synonymous with socialization, but enculturation is a more appropriate word for that meaning.
Acculturalization, Acculturational - Acculturation
Acculturate, Acculturize - cause to undergo acculturation
Acculturative - involving or producing acculturation
"Black Elk Speaks" and "Bread Givers": Acculturation - Discusses two forms of acculturation that appear in "Black Elk Speaks" translated by John Neihardt. These conditions are then compared to similar realities presented in "Bread Givers" by Anzia Yezierska.
Ideation and Acculturation among Low Socioeconomic Status Mexican American Adolescents
Katherine M. Rasmussen, Charles Negy, Ralph Carlson, JoAnn Mitchell Burns, University of Texas-Pan American
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Mexican American adolescents' suicide ideation could be predicted from their acculturation levels. A nonclinical sample of 242 Mexican American eighth-grade students completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior High School version, the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Although adolescents' acculturation levels did not correlate independently with suicide ideation scores, acculturation did significantly predict suicide ideation when combined with depressive symptoms and low self-esteem. Mexican American female adolescents had significantly higher suicide ideation scores and depressive symptoms as well as significantly lower self-esteem than did their male counterparts.
smoking behavior in Asian-American populations
Grace X. Ma, Yin Tan, Jamil I Toubbeh, Xuefen Su, Steven E. Shive and Yajia Lan
Acculturation had a variable effect on smoking behavior: more acculturated youth and less acculturated male adults had higher smoking rates than the less acculturated youth and the more acculturated male adults. Smoking rates for females were generally lower than those of males regardless of acculturation status; acculturated adult females had a higher smoking rate than the less acculturated.
Acculturation and Psychological Well-Being among Immigrant Adolescents in Finland - A Comparative Study of Adolescents From Different Cultural Backgrounds.
Adapting a Measure of
Acculturation for Cross-Cultural Research - Felicitas A. Dela Cruz, DNSc,
RN, Azusa Pacific University, Geraldine V. Padilla, Elaine O. Agustin.
Describes a systematic and replicable process used in adapting and modifying A Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics for use with Filipino Americans.
Acculturation and the Mental Health of Latina Women in the Women, Infant, and Children Program - Antonia Cordero, Brenda Kurz, University of Connecticut. Program compared five measures of acculturation and mental health status/utilization.
Relations of Depression,
Acculturation, Socioeconomic Status in a Latino Sample - Israel Cuellar,
University of Texas-Pan American - Robert E. Roberts, University of Texas Health
Data from 1,271 Latino first-year college students; 89% self-labeled as either Mexican American or Hispanic, 11% as Mexican National. Symptoms of depression were compared for various acculturation levels. The Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II) was used to assess acculturation characteristics. Variance in depression scores was influenced more by gender and SES than by acculturation or ethnic identity status. Assimilated Mexican Americans reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression than more traditional counterparts. Ethnicity and acculturation were not found to lessen or increase risk for depression, and SES associated with ethnicity was found to directly affect depression scores.
and Intimate Partner Violence among Hispanic Couples in the United States: Longitudinal
Study - Raul Caetano, Suhasini Ramisetty-Mikler
Christine McGrath, University of Texas School of Public Health.
Examines the 5-year association between acculturation, drinking, and male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence among Hispanic couples. Drinking is associated with acculturation among women. Couples with mixed acculturation level are less at risk for male-to-female partner violence. Acculturation level at Time 1 is not associated with male-to-female partner violence and female-to-male partner violence status 5 years later.
Gang Membership and
Acculturation: ARSMA-II and Choloization -
D. A. Lopez, Patricia O'Donnell Brummett, California State University, Northridge
Choloization, a staple in gang research on Latinos, asserts that gang members are less acculturated than non-gang members. A sample of Latino incarcerated youths from Los Angeles County (N = 370) is used and the veracity of the concept of choloization using the ARSMA-II Acculturation Scale is examined.
J.A. Cobas, H. Balcazar, M.B. Benin, V.M.Keith, and Yinong Chong. "Acculturation and Low Birthweight Infants among Latino Women: A Reanalysis of HHANES Data with Structural Equation Models." American Journal of Public Health 86 (March,1996):394-396
H. Balcazar, G. Peterson, and J.A. Cobas. Acculturation and Health-related Risk Behaviors Among Mexican American Pregnant Women. American Journal of Health Behavior (November-December 1996):425-433.
Two Different Worlds: Acculturation Stress and Adaptation among Cuban and Nicaraguan Families - Andres G. Gil, University of Connecticut, William A. Vega, University of California.
G. Peterson, J.A. Cobas, H. Balcazar, and J. Amling. "Acculturation and Risk Behavior among Pregnant Mexican American Females: A Structural Equation Model." Sociological Inquiry 68 (November, 1998):536-556.
Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research (Decade of Behavior) Book by Kevin M. Chun, Pamela Balls Organista, Gerardo Marin (Editors)
The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology David L. Sam, John W. Berry
Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation Across National Contexts Book by J.W. Berry, Jean S. Phinney, David L. Sam, Paul Vedder.
Acculturation and Psychological Adaptation - Vanessa Smith Castro
Acculturation and Heritage Language Maintenance: Cultural and Educational Experiences of Chinese Americans by Grace Huey-Yuh Lin.