Sociology Index Guide: Prof Son-Ung Kim.  suk.gif (5411 bytes)

Sociology, according to Max Weber, is the science whose object is to interpret the meaning of social action. Sociology gives a causal explanation of the way in which the action proceeds and the effects which it produces. Society is best conceived as the product of interactions between component individuals controlled by a body of traditions and norms. According to Park social control is the central fact and the central problem of society. According to Georg Simmel the problems of modern life flow from the attempt of the individual to maintain the independence and individuality of his existence against the sovereign powers of society.



Sociology Index Of Topics

Activism includes Social, Environmental and Religious Activism

Actus Reus refers to the physical component of a crime.

Affirmative Action

Aboriginal Peoples of Canada.

Accounting is rationalizations people provide for their actions.

Acculturation is the adaptation to an alien culture.

Acephalous Society means the society is without a head.

Aging affects all human beings. Gerontology deals with old age.

Action Theory views social action as shaped by individuals.


Aging and Gerontology.

Agency focuses on the individual as a subject.

American Revolution occurred during 18th century.

Amplification Of Deviance

Analysing causes of terrorism and their impact.

Anarchism is where society has no government or laws.

Alienation reflects low integration and high isolation.

Anomia is characterized by a breakdown in values.

Anomic Division Of Labour is based on power and status.

Anomic suicide is suicide due to disillusionment and disappointment.

Anomie is a condition which led to deviant behavior.

Anti-Semitism is notions of Jewish racial inferiority.

Anti-Combines Laws prevent corporate combination.

Antisocial Personality Disorder invoves disregard for the rights of others.

Alterity is a state of, or condition of, otherness.

Androgyny is feminine and masculine characteristics.

Architectural Sosiology deals with the structure and principles of society.

Altruistic suicide is committed for the benefit of others.

Ascription is assigning some quality or character to a person.

Altruism is regard for others as the principle of action.

Apartheid Legislation defined and enforced segregation.

Aristocracy is government of a State run by its elite citizens.

Astrosociology deals with space and society.

Astroturfing refers to faking popular opinion.

Atavism is a tendency to reproduce ancestral type.

Attachment deals with aspects of the social bond.

Assumption Of Discriminating Traits.

Assumption Of Offender Deficit.

Audience And Audience Studies.

Audience Segmentation is defining people based on subgroups.

Authoritarianism is authority of the state or union.

Background knowledge of culture as a source of guidance.

Base refers to the mode of production of a society.

Behavioral Science is the analysis of behavior in sociology.

Belief in conventional values, morality, and law.

Berdache is a male who takes on the roles of women.

Berlin Wall minimized cultural contact between east and west.

Bilineal Descent is descent both patrilineally and matrilineally.

Biotechnology And Bioethics. Ethical Issues impacting life.

Bivariate Analysis tests hypotheses of association and causality.

Blog or Web Log. Blog is the short form for Web Log.

Blue-Collar Crime is any crime committed by lower social class.

Bourgeois Class Means Middle Class

Bracketing reveals the underlying thinking in social action.

In Brave New World Aldus Huxley imagines the use new technologies, drugs and instruments of propaganda.

Bride price is the transfer of wealth by the groom to bride.

British North America

Broken Window Theory


Calvinism is a Christian doctrine associated with John Calvin.

Capital is accumulation of wealth used for the production.

Capital Punishment is the punishment of crime by execution.

Capital Accumulation happens when capacity exceeds consumption.

In Capitalism profit is reinvested so as to accumulate capital.

Career Criminal is one whose criminality is just like a career.

Cargo Cults

Carrying Capacity in ecology refers to sustainable resource.

Caste is hereditory status

Casting Couch originated in the film industry.

Causality is relationship between two variables.

CAUSE are features which might produce a particular effect.

Chaos Theory And Complexity Theory.

Charter Groups played a pioneering role in new territories.

Chicago School refers to first school of sociology at Chicago.


The concept of civil society implies limits on the state's role.

Civilization is a term used by archaeologists and anthropologists.

Classical Conditioning is a basic form of learning.

Classical Ciminology is the first formal school of criminology.

Classical Economic Theory is first school of economic thought.

Classical Liberalism is about individuals being rational.

Classless Society is a society without a hierarchy of classes.

Class Oppression translates into nonclass oppression.

Clayton Antitrust Act of 1915.

Closed-Class Society is where class location is ascribed.

Clovis Culture of the first human inhabitants of the Americas.

Cluttered Nest is the phenomenon of young adults returning home.

Cognitive Anthropology is also known as ethnoscience.

Cohorts share a similar experience at a particular time.

Cold War is the hostile relations between United States and Soviet Union after Second World War.

Collaborative Community is unlike the traditional community.

Collective Behavior is defined as activity involving a large number of people.

Collective Identity refers to a sense of belonging to the group.

Collective Solidarity is to similar to mechanical solidarity.

Colonialism is political domination of one nation over another.

Command Economy is an economy directed by state authorities.

Common Law derives from feudal England.

Common law copyright doctrine.

Commonsense Reasoning is also referred to as mundane reasoning.

Communism is for collective ownership of resources and capital.

Communitarianism places priority on the community.

Community is a web of ties linking people in mutual bonds.

Community Crime Prevention includes effective guardianship.

Community psychology analyses social problems.

Comparative Cultural Studies.

Comprador Elite are senior corporate managers.

Computerized Activism or Internet Activism is direct action

Conduct Norms are divergent according to groups.


Conflict Perspectives focus on the divisions of societies.

A conglomerate is joined together by a corporate holding company.

Conscience Collective Or Collective Conscience.

Consensual Crime is crime in which the victim is a participant.

Consensus Perspective is also known as functionalism.

Consequentialism. A consequentialist believes in right action.

Conservation Movement


Conspicuous Consumption as used by Thorsten Veblen.

Constitutional Monarchy has only formal legal power.

Consumer Culture is found in Advanced capitalist societies.

Content Analysis is a systematic method for measuring the content.

Contest Mobility occurs where recruitment for positions is seen as a contest.

Continental in US history refers to the colonies of America.

The term Contradictions Of Capitalism is associated with Karl Marx.

Control Groups are used in controlled experiments to curb bias.

Conventional Crimes are traditional illegal behaviors.

Conversational Analysis is also known as sequential analysis.

Copyleft All Wrongs Reserved is defined as copyright licensing.

Copyright Law. The objective of copyright is to promote ideas.

Corespective Behavior avoids cutthroat competition.

Corporate Culture drives the organization and its actions.

Corporate Elite are the owners and directors of companies.

Corporate Crime is crime committed by corporate employees.

Corporatism is a political ideology associated with fascism.

Correlation Zero Order Or Zero Order Correlation

Correspondence Principle is used in sociology of education.


Counter Veblen Effect. Cheap is good in micro-economics.

Craft Union brings together workers within the same craft.

Crime Control Model and the Due Process Model.

Crime Reduction.

Crime And Criminology. Crime is the central focus of criminology.

Criminal Recidivism is repetition of criminal behavior.

Criminogenic Market Structure creates crime.

Critical Criminology is the study using a Conflict Perspective.

Critical Theory was developed by the Frankfurt School.

Crony Capitalism arises when cronyism extends into the business.

Cross-Cultural, Inter-Cultural and Multi-Cultural Studies.

Cross-Sectional Research is analogous to one still picture.

Cross Cousin is maternal uncle's child or paternal aunt's child.

Cross-cultural Analysis is also known as comparative analysis.

Crown copyright is copyright with special copyright rules.

Crown corporation is an organization established by government.


Cult Of Domesticity Or Cult Of True Womanhood.

Cultural Anthropology is the science of cultural behavior.

Cultural Challenges in a global workplace are enormous.

Cultural Colonialism is the desire to control other nations' values and perceptions.

Cultural Explanation. An explanation for crime.

Cultural Genocide. Undermining and eliminating native cultures.

Cultural imperialism involves assumption of cultural superiority.

Cultural Production.

Cultural Revolution marked the return of Mao Zedong.

Cultural Capital

Cultural Construction is shaped by cultural assumptions.

Cultural Ecology is interaction between culture and environment.

The Cultural Industries in contemporary society?

Culturally Prescribed Aspirations.

Cultural Studies is associated with the Frankfurt School.

Culture is shared knowledge, beliefs and values.

Culture Of Poverty Thesis And Low Class Culture Theory.

Culture and Cognition.

Culture Shock is common among immigrant groups.


Cyberculture. What is cyberculture?

Cyberocracy is bureaucracy changed by information technology.

Cybersecurity Law.


Cyborgs, Bionic Implants.

Dark Figure Of Crime is crime which is unreported.

Darwinism is the theory on how living beings developed.

Deconstruction is a concept central to postmodernism.

Deep Ecology is ideas within the environmental movement.

Defining The Situation helps in deciding what values and norms are relevant.


Demand Characteristic is used in experimental psychology.

Demand Mobility is social mobility which occurs over time.


Democracy is where citizens have equal legal rights to vote.

Democratic Deficit.

Demographic Transition.

Demography is the study of populations, its size and structure.

Dependency Ratio shows population depending on those working.

Dependent Development is a central concept of dependency theory.

Dependent Variable.

Descriptive Statistics. A mean, median or mode is descriptive.

Designs Law protects the design element of innovative activity.

Deskilling. Work is fragmented and integrated skills are lost.

Determinism allows for a explanation characteristics of society

Developmental Crime Prevention focuses on the way a crime occurs.

Deviant Behavior. What is deviance?

Dialectics is metaphysical contradictions and their solutions.


Differential Association.

Diffuseness of Roles is a characteristic of simple societies.

Direct investment is one of two categories of foreign investment.

Discomgoogolation is also called Doogled is caused by internet dependency.

Discourse analysis is a theme in postmodernism.

Discrimination is the unequal treatment of individuals.

Disenfranchised means to be without the right to vote.

Dissociation is used in a psychological or sociological way.

Distributive Justice and Retributive Justice

Division of Labour for a qualitative increase in productivity.

Documentary Method Of Interpretation.

Dominant Ideology Thesis is associated with Karl Marx.

Double blind procedure is used to enhance internal validity.

Double Burden is women performing work outside and inside home.

Double Standard refers to different norms of sexual morality.

Dowry is a transfer of wealth from the bride's family.

Dramaturgical Model. In dramaturgy world is conceived as a stage.

Due-Process Model emphasizes the need to reform people.

Ebayization is like Mcdonaldisation and Globalization

Ecofeminism and Ecofeminist ideas in the environmental movement.

Ecological Fallacy is the error made in reasoning about differing units of analysis..

Ecological Studies

Ecology is the study of living beings' relationships and world.

ECONOMIC DETERMINISM. Karl Marx was an economic determinist.

Economic Mobility

Economic Sociology

Educational Inequality

Effective Guardianship is routine activities approach to crime.

Egalitarian. Egalitarianism considers that all people have same rights.


Egoistic Suicide.

Electronic Civil Disobedience and Hacktivism date back to 1998.

Embourgeuisement Thesis argues that the working class are being assimilated into middle class.

Emigration refers to migration out of a nation.

Emotional Labor creates emotional feelings in clients.

Empirical evidence is evidence observed through the senses.

Employment Equity has come to have several dimensions.

Empty Nesters are parents whose children have matured and moved.

Enculturation is the process by which values are acquired.

Endogamy prescribes marriage to a particular kinship-related partner.

Enlightenment Project is apparent in some of the works of Karl Marx.

Environmental Movements address environmental issues.

Epidemiology is a term used largely in medical sociology.

Epistemology deals with the grounds and validity of knowledge.

Equality Of Condition also known as equality of outcome does not exist in complex societies.

Equality of opportunity exists where there is no difference in individual's wealth, status and power.


Ethnic Group And Ethnic Identity.

Ethnocentrism is assumption of superiority of one's own group.

Ethnographic Research uses participant observation as a tool.

Ethnomethodology is the study of people's practices.

Etiological Factors encourage or cause a particular outcome.

Eugenics means good genes.

Euthanasia was declared legal in Switzerland in 1937.

Evolutionary psychology. Altruism has genetic basis.

Exceptional State relies on the coercive power of the state.

Executive Disengagement.


Exogamy is the custom of seeking a mate outside kinship group.

Experimental Group receives the actual drug in a study.

Exponential Growth is growth with a geometric progression.

External validity is confirmation of research results in the real world.

Extraversion or Sociability.

False Negative is wrongly identifying someone as non-dangerous.

False Positives is mistakes in identify dangerous offenders.

Falsifiability Or Refutability is a tenet central to science.

Familism refers to core values which emphasize family as a unit.

Fascism is opposed to democracy.

Fashion Culture. What is fashion culture?

Fashion And Consumer Culture.

Fatalistic Suicide occurs when an individual sees no hope.

Fault Tree Analysis is used for performing reliability analysis.

Federalism Asymmetrical is Federal System without same powers.

Federalism Centripetal. Power is dispersed from the centre.

Feminism is a diverse political and intellectual movement.

Feminization Of Poverty means poverty among women is higher.

Feudalism is system of economic and social organization.

First Line Authorities deal directly with the public.

Folk Society is a society with little complexity.

Forces Of Production in Marxian terms is the essential components of the economic system.

Fordism refers to the system of mass production or assembly line.

Frankfurt School.

Free Market Economics is synonymous with Laissez-faire economy.

Free Trade Zones are meant to facilitate cross border trade

French Revolution overthrew the Bourbon monarchy in France.

Freudian Slip. The unintentional slip of the tongue.

Friedman Doctrine.

Friedrich Nietzsche has been linked to Nazism and postmodernism.

Friedrich Engels was a father of Marxist theory with Karl Marx.

Functionalism is often referred to as consensus theory.

Functionalist Explanations are also referred to as teleology.

Game Theory develops formulas to identify optimal strategies.

Gemeinschaft And Gesellscaft.

Gender Gap occurs in pay and political party preferences.

Gender Inequality is unequal treatment based on gender.

Gender and Women. Women have always had lower status than men.

Gender roles are social roles ascribed on the basis of sex.

Gender Socialization is the way parents treat babies based on sex.

General Deterrence refers to crime prevention instilling fear.

Generalized Other is a concept used by George Herbert Mead.

Genericized Trademark is also known as a generic trade mark.


Geographical Indication is used to identify goods from a particular place.

Gerontocracy is the rule by elders and a form of oligarchical rule.

Geropsychology is devoted to the study of aging and old adults.

Giffen Goods violate the basic law of demand in economics.

Gift. Marcel Mauss' 1925 essay.

Gini coefficent measures income inequality at any point in time.

Glass Ceiling Hypothesis and the invisible barriers women face.

Globalization And Multinational Corporations

Globalization's Challenges on various fronts.

Goods Producing Economy is usually contrasted with service economy

Green Revolution refers to rise in agricultural productivity.

Green-Collar Crime.

Greenhouse Effect refers to increase in the average temperature.

Gross Counts Of Crime makes no distinction in crime categories.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross Domestic Income (GDI).

Grounded Theory has been derived through inductive reasoning.

Guerrilla Warfare vs Terrorism.

Hacktivism is hacking for a political cause.

Harm reduction is about reducing harm that comes to offenders such as drug users.

Hawthorne effect is an increase in worker productivity at GE.

Hegemony is political and social domination of bourgeois class.

Heritability is associated with characteristics like intelligence.

Heterogamy is a marriage between culturally different people.

Heterophily is the tendency of individuals to collect in diverse groups.

Heuristic Device is used for thinking about social phenomena.

Hidden Curriculum is the norms and values indirectly conveyed.

Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology.

Hierarchy is the structuring of statuses within a society.

Historical Materialism

Historical Sociology studies show how societies work and change.

Homogamy is marriage between individuals with similar status.

Homophily. Birds of the same feather flock together.

Homophobia is fear of homosexuals and of homosexuality.

Honor Killings And Honor Crimes in a male dominated society.

Horizontal Integration is Sectoral Concentration.

Horizontal Social Mobility is the transition in social position on the same level.

Human Capital is the capabilities that individuals contribute.

Human Capital Accumulation theory claims that the wealth of a nation is vested in its people.

Human Ecology is a science of the ecology of human populations.

Humanism asserts the central importance of human life.

Human Rights. Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

Hunter-Gatherer Society is the earliest form of human society.

Hutterites are an Anabaptist group led by Joseph Hutter.

Hyperglobalization is rapid trade integration.

Hypotheses of Terrorism. Olson Hypothesis.

Hypothesis is a testable statement, true or false.

Hypothetico-Deductive Model Of Science Is A Classical Model.

I refers to the aspect of identity, or self.

Id is the unconscious drives and psychic energies of humans.

Idea-Expression Divide or Idea-Expression Dichotomy

Idealtype is an abstract classic model of social phenomenon.


Identity Crisis is failure to achieve ego identity in adolescence.

Identity Poltics is a central aspect of postmodern politics.

Ideographic Explanations

Ideological Hegemony permeates ideas and social relationships.


Immigration is the movement of peoples into a country.

Imperialism is the domination by one country over others.

Incapacitation is punishing people for what they might do

Incidence is a contrasting term to prevalence.

Inconspicuous Consumption occurs during times of recession.

Independent Variable is also known as the manipulated variable.

Index Of Socio-Economic Status

Indexicality refers to contextual nature of behavior and talk.

Indictable Offenses are the most serious category of crime.

Indigenous Peoples are people inhabiting a land before colonization.

Individualism upholds choice and personal freedom.

Individual Pathology is a term used to refer to Biological or Psychological Traits.

Inductive Reasoning is characterized by induction.

Industrial Relations refers to workplace relationships.

Industrial Revolution refers to profound technological changes.

Industrialization refers to the mass manufacturing of goods.

Inequality Of Condition occurs where Wealth, Status and Power are unequal.

Inequality of Opportunity results in disadvantages to the poor.

Inference is the process of moving from an indicator to conclusion.

Inferiorization is imposing inferiorized identity on a group.

Informal Economy refers to economic unreported transactions.

Information Privacy Laws protect information on individuals.

Information Society. What Is Information Society?

Infrastructure concept is similar to Mode of Production.

Institution Social And Total Institution.

Instructional Design Model.

Instrumentalist Marxism is the Role of State from Marxist Perspective.

Insurgent and Insurgency. Insurgent movements include reformist.

Intellectual Property Rights And Laws protect works of the intellect.

Interaction refers to relationship between individuals.

Interest Groups encompass those with issue specific goals.

Internal Validity is criteria against which results are judged.

Internet Law or CyberLaw involves international jurisdictions.

Internment is segregation and confinement of suspicious persons.

Interpretive Theory

Interpretivist And Interpretivism.

Intersubjectivity helps us relate one situation to another.

Invisible Hand Of The Market is associated with Adam Smith.

Involvement is the degree to which an individual is active

Involvement Of States In Terrorism

Iron Cage is a phrase associated with Max Weber.

Iron Law Of Oligarchy is that the Civil Service is self-perpetuating.

Jan Aart Scholtes Globalization. Definitions of Globalization.

Jim Crow Laws and Jane Crow Laws.

Judeo-Christian Ethics refers to broad moral precepts.

Juristic Person is capable of suing and being sued in a court.

Juvenilization Of Poverty is increase in poverty among children.

Karaoke Capitalism refers to concepts such as benchmarking.

Karl Marx was a political revolutionary and a sociologist.

Keynesian Economics stresses on active government intervention.

Kinsey Reports were on sexual behavior.

Kinship Structure defines central organizational principle of many traditional societies.

Knowledge Economy.

Labeling Theory rejected Consensus Theory.

Labour Market Segmentation splits the labour market into primary and secondary labour market.

Labour Theory Of Value Of Karl Marx.

laissez faire is an injunction against government interference.

Lateral Integration is the same as horizontal integration

Law is the body of rules, whether formally enacted or customary.

Left-libertarianism endorses full self-ownership.

Left Realism is in response to the rise of neo-conservatism.

Legitimation Crisis occurs when government is unable to govern.

Leninism refers to the ideas of Vladimir Ilich Lenin.

Levels Of Measurement.

Liberal Feminism primarily focuses on women's ability.

Liberalism is defined as a social ethic that advocates equality.

Libertarianism seeks to promote individual liberty.

Lifestyle Exposure Theory.

Longitudinal Research is a series of cross-sectional investigations.

Longitudinal Studies is a series of cross-sectional investigations over time.

Looking Glass Self was a formulation of symbolic interactionism.

Lorenz Curve was developed to describe the extent of inequality.

Lower-Class Culture is a set of cultural values and expectations.

Luddites initiated random attacks destroying machinery

Lumpenproletariat was used to refer to slum workers or the mob.

Machismo is the quality of being macho and masculine pride.

Macro-Perspective is a way of seeing society as a unified whole.

Mafia is a term used to identify ethnic Sicilian crime groups.

Magic is the performance of routines done to persuade the gods.

Majority Group refers to a group in power.

Malthusian Crisis is about population growth and food shortage.

Managerial revolution is the emergence of superior structure.

Marginalization And Social Exclusion.

Market Economy. Goods and Services are freely exchanged.

Marshall Inquiry was to investigate Donald Marshall Jr Case.

Marxism And Darwinism dominated the human mind in 19th century.

Marxist Feminism postulates that women are not oppressed by men.

Masculine Female identifies females with masculine features.

Masculinization is a term applied to female criminality.

Mass Culture is culture which is mass produced and marketed.

Mass Society refers to a society with a mass culture.

Mass Communication and Mass Society.

Mass destruction, terrorism and WMD.

Mass media is that media which are targeted at the mass.

Master Status is status that overrides all others in importance.

Matriarchy is a society in which women possess authority.

Matrilineal Societies trace descent through mothers.

Matrilineal Descent was common in ancient societies.

Matrilocal Residence is where a couple settle in wife's home.

Maturational Reform is the observation that crime decreases as people age.

Matza's notion of drift is unintentional crime among the youth.



Mcjob is a low paying job generally performed part-time.

McWorld is a concept developed by Benjamin Barber.

Me refers to self that is aware of the expectations of others.

Mean is commonly called an average.

Means Test is a policy for the provision of social assistance.

Measure Of Crime. How Is Crime Measured? UCR and NCVS.

Mechanical Solidarity refers to a state of interdependency.

Median is a measure of data at the ratio levels of measurement.

Medical Tourism? What is health tourism?

Medieval Period is also known as the middle ages.

Medium Is The Message is the central idea of communications theorist Marshall McLuhan.

Member is a central term in ethnomethodological theory.

Membership Categorization is to perceive people and explain actions.

Mens Rea means criminal intent and that an act must be blameworthy.

Mercantilism is the maintainance of a balance of international trade.

Meritocracy is rule by those chosen on the principle of merit.

Meta-Aanalysis is analyses of a collection of research results.

Metanarrative is a narrative above the ordinary accounts.

Method is the tool or instrument one uses to measure crime.

Methodological Holism And Mehodological Individualism.

Methodological Individualism And Methodoligical Holism.

Methodology is a body of methods, rules, and postulates.

Metropolis-Hinterland Theory.

Micro and Macro Sociology.

Micro Perspective focuses on individuals and their subjectivity.

Middle Class is the petite bourgeoisie.

Military Dictatorship. Political power resides with military.

Military Sociology.

Ministerial Responsibility is that the Minister is answerable to Parliament.

Minority Group is one which is on the margins of power or status.

Minority Problems. Minorities and typical sources of conflict.

Miscegenation is interbreeding of differing racial groups.

Misogyny is hatred or strong prejudice against women.


Mode and other measures of central tendency, like median and the mean.

Mode Of Production.

Modeling is learning as a result of watching and imitating.

Modernization Theory is about social and economic development.

Monarchy is rule by one person, either the king or the queen.

Monetarism is economic doctrine established by Milton Friedman.

Monogamy is a term is used to refer to marital monogamy.

Monopoly refers to one company's control of the market

Monozygotic Twins are commonly known as identical twins.

Moral development theories in the field of criminology.

Moral Economy is driven by moral obligations created by kinship.

Moral Entrepreneurs are those who construct deviance.

Moral Pluralism is also known as ethical pluralism.

Moral Rhetoric is the claims deviants make to rationalize deviance.

Moral panic is a panic or overreaction to forms of deviance.

Moral Rights are distinct from any economic rights tied to copyright.

Motivated Offenders are ready to engage in deviant acts.

Mulatto is an individual with mixed black and white heritage.

Multiculturalism is the acceptance of various cultural divisions.

Multinational Corporation MNC.

Multivariate analysis is a form of quantitative analysis.

Mundane Reasoning is the way we share conceptions of social facts in everyday world.

Music Groups that gave society socially relevant music.

Mutual Conversion to deviant behavior is achieved interactively.

Mystification is the masking of central aspects of society.

Myth refers to a narrative of collective wisdom of a society.

Mythosociology is the study of knowledge assembled along women's and men's lines of communication.


Nation. Humans are divided into groups called nations.


Nationalization is the public ownership of economic resources.

Native Indians is a racial formation in Canada.

Natural Attitude is term used by Alfred Schutz (1899-1959).

Naxalism and Maoism are movements meant to tackle inequality.

Nazism is the political doctrine followed by Adolf Hitler.

Necessary Condition.

Negotiation of criminal status refers to defining criminality.

Neoconservatism is associated with Classical Liberalism.

Neocolonialism is a term used by post-colonial critics.

Neoliberalism calls for free trade and open markets.

Neolocal Residence is new residence independent of the couple's parents.

Net Widening is a term used within critical criminology.

New Deal. Franklin D. Roosevelt: I pledge you, I pledge myself.

New France.

Nomothetic means of or pertaining to the study of general laws.

Norms are culturally established rules for social behaviour.

Nothing Works is used by those opposed to rehabilitation

Null Hypothesis is used when testing a research hypothesis.

Nuremberg trials were a series of trials of former Nazi leaders.

Objectivity refers to the actions of a social scientist.

Occupational Crime is committed by those in all walks of life.

Occupational Distance between one occupation and another.

Occupational Structure.

Oligarchy is a society or social system ruled by a few people.

Oligopoly is where a few companies own the production of a good.

One Big Union Movement is about the early conflicts within trade unions.

One-Percenter. American Motorcycle Gypsy Tour on July 4, 1947.

Open Class Ideology is a component part of liberal ideology.

Operant Conditioning and reinforcement.

Operationalization and quantitative research.

Operationally Defined. Such that the concept can be observed.

Opportunity Structure.

Organic Solidarity refers to interdependency in labour.

Organizational Crime Is White-Collar Crime.

Organizational Culture helps us understand human systems.

Organized crime is an enterprise engaging in illegal activities.

Overrepresentation Is Disproportionate Representation.

Pan_Indianism asserts common identity and unity.

Panel Study is a form of longitudinal research.

Paradigm is a framework to understand social phenomena.

Paradigm Shift occurs when sets of assumptions change over time.

Parallel cousins are offspring of siblings of the same sex.

Parallel Cousins vs Cross Cousins.

Paramount Chieftanship is political system similar to a kingdom.

Pareto Analysis uses the Pareto Principle.

Participatory Research. The subjects exploited groups are fully involved.

Patriarchy literally is rule by the father.

Patrilineal Descent is reckoned through blood links of males.

Patrilocal Residence Or Patrilocality.

Patrimony may be inherited by either sex.

Pattern Variables are dichotomies, developed by Talcott Parsons.

Pay Equity refers to elimination of pay differentials.

Penitentiary embodied the principle of solitary confinement.

Penology is the study of treatment and punishment of offenders.

Per Capita is a term used to refer to crimes per head.

Personality And Socialization.

Petite Bourgeoisie is a middle class of professionals.

Phenomenological sociology is defined as the study of phenomenon.

Philip Zimbardo.

Physical anthropology is the science of evolution, and ecology.

Physiological approach to terrorism.

Pink Collar is term used to distinguish jobs from white collar jobs.

Pink Collor Ghetto refers to jobs thought to be women's work.

Pink Collar Crimes are committed by females with less power.

Pink Floyd

Pluralism is where power is widely dispersed.

Plutocracy is rule by wealthy people.

Polarization Of Classes.

Police Culture shapes routine decision-making by the police.

Political Activism.

Political Capital is gained by pursuing good public policies.

Political Culture.

Political Policing is the policing of community acts.

Political crime is seen in structures of domination.

Political Socialization.

Political Sociology is the Study of Socio-Political Phenomena.

Politics is the principles and commitments in political life.

Polity shapes the way the society is governed.

Polyandry is polygamy in which a woman has two or more husbands.

Polygamy is having more than one spouse living at the same time.

Polygyny is polygamy with two or more wives at the same time.

Popular Culture is the culture of the masses.

Population index includes all members of given class or set.

Population Studies And Demography.

Positive Or Negative Sanction is in response to behavior.

Positive School is the first scientific school of criminology.

Positive Deviance includes special acts like whistle-blowing.

Positivism places science in a privileged position.

Post-Industrial Thesis is the move to sophisticated services.

Post-Critical Criminology

Postmodern is movements in modernism and modern assumptions.

Postmodernism is a concept that appears in a variety of areas.

Poststructuralism is a response to structuralism.

Potlatch is a custom of the First Nations peoples to give gifts.

Power is the capacity to achieve goals even when opposed.

Power Control Theory is an explanation for differences in criminality.

Pre-experimental Design is not an authentic experiment.

Prejudice is judgment not based on reason or actual experience.

Presentation Of Self includes verbal messages and gestures.

Prevalence tells us about the number of particular events.

Primary Deviance is the initial act of deviance.

Primary Labour Market offers high wages and more job stability.

Primitive Communism is linked to hunting and gathering societies.

Primitive society denotes simple human societies of history.

Prison Subculture is the culture imported to the prison.

Prisoner's Dilemma is a game analyzed in game theory.

Prisonization is the process of becoming prisonized.

Private Domain helped in describing women's location in society.

Private Sector is controlled by private individuals.

Privatization is moving economic resources to the private sector.

Probability Sample ensures equal random selection.

Problematic. Norms are forever problematic.

Procedural Law is the rules governing procedure of the courts.

Profession is occupations evolving over time.

Progressive Taxation progressively increases the tax

Progressivism is set against decades of expansion and growth.

Proletariat is the social class that does not have ownership.

Proportional Taxation.

Protestant Ethic.

Protestantism. Protestant doctrine is the opposite of Roman Catholicism.

Psychoanalysis is the study of human psychological functioning.

Psychological Reductionism.

Psychopaths tend to be lacking in what is considered conscience.

Public Domain covers all works not covered by IP rights.

Public sector is economy owned or controlled by the public.

Public Health Model looks at drug abuse as public health issue.

Public Images Of Crime And Public Perceptions Of Crime.

Punishment is a negative sanction imposed on the violator.

Qualitative Research. Research using participant observation.

Quantitative Research allows for the measurement of variables.

Quantitative Analysis of behavior is experimental analysis.

Quasi-experiments do not use random assignment.

Quasi-realism a form of non-cognitivism or expressivism.

Queer Culture

Race is classification of humans on biological characteristics.

Racism is inherently irrational. Racist acts are immoral.

Radical Feminism is recent and differs from traditional Marxism.

Randomized Testing must ensure that tests are random.

Rate. Criminologists calculate crime rates.

Rational Choice Theory is an empirical theory of human behavior.

Rationality is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on facts or reason.

RATIONALIZATION as a concept was developed by Max Weber.

REACTION FORMATION occurs when failure is imminent.

Red-Collar Crime

Reference Group is a term from social psychology.

Reflexivity and Indexicality are properties of behavior.


REGRESSIVE TAXATION. A tax structure where well-off pay less.

Rehabilitative Ideal.

Reification is treating that which is abstract as tangible.

Reinforcement. A process in which a behaviour is strengthened.

Relative Autonomy is state power based on Marxist ideas.

Reliability refers to consistency of results over time.

Religiosity is an important part of social and political life.

Religious Right is found frequently in the United States.

Republic is a society with no hereditary head of state.

Reserve Army Of Labour in Marxian view is reserve labour force.


Restructuring refers to the re-organization and rationalization.

Retribution must be distinguished from revenge and retaliation.

Reverse Discrimination occurs against a privileged group.



Rites of Passage is when a person's life moves to the next stage.


Role is a position within social structure shaped by norms.

Role Convergence may explan rising crime rate among women.

Role Distancing is a concept from dramaturgical sociology.

Role Playing occurs when one pretends the role of another.

Role Strain is the stress from the performance of a role.

Role Taking or Reflexive Role-taking to look at ourselves.

Role Theory.

Routine Activity Theory. Life styles explain crime.

Rule of law controls arbitrary exercise of power.

Rural Sociology examines data for rural development.

Russian Revolution refers to the creation of Russia.

Sacred And The Profane.

Sample is thought to be representative of the population.

Scientific Method is used to design and develop theories.

Scientific Management is work organization.

Secondary Deviance is internalizing a deviant identity.

Secondary labour market refers to labour intensive jobs.


Self-Control And Delinquency.

Self-Government also means self-determination.

Self-Report Study is a method for measuring crime.

Self-reported delinquency is a count of delinquency.


The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins.

Seperation Of Powers between various institutions.

Sequential analysis or conversation analysis.

Serf is unfree status associated with agrarian economies.

Service Economy is based on provision of service.

Sex, Sex typing and Sexism

Sexting is texting sex messages.

Sexual dimorphism is differences between males and females.

Sexual Division Of Labour

Sexual Stratification is gender based in the work setting.

Signifier is a term from semiology, the study of signs.

Silent Spring is a message for environmentalists.

Situational Crime Prevention reduces opportunities for crime.

Slavery. Slave is treated as a legally owned property.

Social Analysis explores historical and structural relationships.

Social Bond includes bonding to family, school and workplace.

Social Class is individuals sharing a common situation.

Social Construction of Gender and gender roles in society.

Social construction of reality.

Social Control Theory.

Social Darwinism as a concept was invented by Richard Hofstadter.

Social Democracy.

Social Disorganization Theory reflects middle-class failure.

Social Economy helps in creating an inclusive society.

Social Exchange Theory of George Homans and Peter Blau.

Social Identity assumes some commonalities with others.

Social integration is the joining of ethnic groups in a society.

Social interaction is the acts people perform toward each other.

Social Intervention Programs Improve The Social Situation.

Social Maps is used primarily as a metaphor.

Social Market Economy was inspired by Christian ethics.

Social Movements.

Social Network was coined in 1954 by J. A. Barnes.

Social Order is contrasted to Social Disorder.

Social Policy.

Social Reaction Theory or labeling theory.

Social Relations Of Production refers to class structure.

Social Segmentation could be based on social status or cultural status.

Social Solidarity is what holds a diverse society together.

Social Status is affected by ethnic origin, gender and age.

Status achieved or achieved status is a position attained.

Social Strain is functionalist approach to systems theory.

Social Technologies.

Social Activism is an action to bring about social change.

Social anthropology studies social and cultural behaviour.

Social Capital facilitates cooperation for mutual benefit.

Social Change.

Social Contract Theory suggests that contract created society.

Social Control is the oldest concept in sociology.

Social Customs And Traditions.

Social Inequality. What is Social inequality?

Socialism upholds the principle of collectivity.

Socialist Feminism is not a fad of disgruntled feminists.

Socialization And Culture.

Social mobility is the movement from one social class to another.

Social Movements And Social Activism.

Social Organization.

Social Planning.

Social Power keeps the social world in motion.

Social problems and structural problems.

Social psychology is similar to sociology.

Social Stratification

Social Structure. Arrangement of roles and statuses in society.

Society is a human community sharing a common culture.

Society and Atheism.

Sociobiology begins with the assumption that humans are animals.

Socioeconomic Status is an usage to measure social class.

Socio-Economic Development.

Sociological Imagination.

Sociological Methodology is about Sociological Methodology

Sociological Theories.

Sociology and Literature reflects society and society shapes literature.

Sociology of Children.

Sociology of Arts includes aesthetics.

Sociology Of Death And Dying.

Sociology Of Disability.

Sociology Of Education and the multidimensionality of education.

Sociology Of Environment and overview of environmental sociology.

Sociology of Family.

Sociology Of Film, Art And Music.

Sociology Of Films.

Sociology Of Gambling.

Sociology of Groups.

Sociology of Health and Medicine.

Sociology Of Knowledge.

Sociology of Law.

Sociology of Leisure Sport.

Sociology Of Music.

Sociology Of Rape.

Sociology of Religion.

Sociology of Sexualities

Sociology Of Work And Industry. Workplace and labor markets.

Somatotypes refers to belief in body types by criminologists.

Soul refers to psyche, the self, or human consciousness.

Sovereignty. Sovereign authority is the source of all law.

Speciesism is bias against all nonhumans.

Specific Deterrence is referred to as individual deterrence.

Specific Land Claims arise from improper administration of lands.

Spirit Of Capitalism is to organize work for profit.

Sponsored Mobility is contrasted with Contest Mobility.


Stalinism refers to Joseph Stalin

State is the institution with legitimate rights to enforce laws.

State Capitalism is a term used to describe communist systems

Statistically Significant Difference.

Statistical School is associated with early social scientists.

Statistics. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.

Status Indian refers to First Nations of Canada.

Status Offence is crime committed by people occupying a status.

Statutes are Laws enacted by a sovereign law-making body.


Stigma is attached to an individual with negative evaluation.

Sigmata refers to physical signs of the state of atavism.

Stonewall Inn gave birth to Gay Activism and Gay Rights Movement

Stonewal Riots reflected A policy of harassment of homosexuals.

Stratification is the condition of being stratified.

Stratocracy is where military chiefs govern.

Streaming is the assigning of students to distinctive streams.

Structural Explanation refers to power differentials.

Structural Functionlism.


Structuralist Approach is to understand the role of the state within conflict perspective.

Structuration captures elements of macro and micro-sociology.

Subcultural Transmission occurs through socialization.


Subjectivism acknowledges and makes room for subjectivity.

Sufficient Condition is any variable which is sufficient.

Suffrage is the right to vote in political matters.

Suicide is the act of intentionally killing oneself.

Summary offence is less serious criminal offence.

Superego describes one of three components of self.

Superstition. Humans by nature are superstitious.

Superstructure refers to the materialist concept of history.

Supraterritoriality refers to trade liberalization.

Surplus is the excess of production over resources used up.

Surplus Value is the value left over after paying the costs.

Sustainable Development is economic activity that is sustainable.

Symbolic Analysts engage in symbolic analytical services.

Symbolic Communications.

Symbolic Interactionism.

Syndicalism advocates worker's ownership of resources.

Systemic And Empirical approach.

Taboo is cultural prohibition.

Target Suitability refers to a suitable target for an offender.


Technophile. Technophilia is contrasted with technophobia.

Technophobia. Technophobe is a person who fears technology.

Telemedicine is patient monitoring through mobile technology.

Terrorism. Terrorism is no longer a local problem.

Terrorism Definition. What is terrorism?

Terrorism For National Liberation.

Terrorism Related Terms

Terrorist Groups.

Terrorist Group Typologies.

Terrorist Ideology And Religious Perception.

Terrorist Rationalization of Violence.

Textual Analysis is analysis of texts to understand social life.

Thanatology investigates death and its forensic aspects.

Theocracy is government by God through a priestly order.

Theory. All sciences use theory as a tool to explain.

Third World are countries in initial stages of development.

Three-Strikes Law imposes harsh sentences on habitual offenders.

Token Economy is based on operant learning principles.

Tort is neglect of legally recognized duties of care to others.

Tory And Toryism. A Tory is member of the Tory political party.

Total Institution.


Traditional Knowledge is local or indigenous knowledge.

Transnational Corporations are beyond the control of any State.


Transsexual is beyond the boundary between the sexes.

Transvestitism is the desire to cross-dress.

Triad Chinese Secret Society of resistance fighters.

Tribalism occurs where social identification has broken down.

True experiment seeks to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship.

Truman Doctrine was to work out life free from coercion.

Tudor is a member of the royal family descended from Owen Tudor.

Type Errors are used to describe possible errors in a statistics.

Typification is social construction based on assumptions.

Typology deals with classes with common characteristics.



Unilineal Descent And Bilineal Descent.

Unit Of Analysis.

Univariate Analysis gives data on one variable.

Universality Principles.

Urban Gentrification.

Urbanism refers to social organization in large urban settings.

Urban Sociology. What are the challenges for urban sociology?

Utilitarianism is for the benefit of a majority.

Utterances are speech examined by Conversational Analysis

Validity is one of two criteria, the other being reliability.

Values are cultural prescriptions of what is right and moral.

Variable is a term central to quantitative sociology.

Veblen Effects and Thorstein Veblen's conspicuous consumption.

Veganism. Vegans exclude animals for food or clothing.

Verstehen literally means understanding or comprehension.

Vertical Integration.

Vertical Social Mobility is upward social mobility or downward social mobility.

Victimization Survey. The National Crime Victimization Survey.

Victimless Crimes occur when the victim is a willing participant.

Violent Predators particularly are sexual offenders.

Visible Minorities are non-whites in Canada.

War Crimes are atrocities against any civilian population.

Welfare State.

What Motivates Terrorists? What Motivates Terrorism?

White-Collar Crimes are the illegal activities of businesses.

Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis or Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

WIPO Copyright Treaty.

Women's Liberation Theory.

Women's Movements.

Working Class are those who are employed in lower tier jobs.

Working Class Culture is associated with Southern culture.

Works Made For Hire. The employer is considered the author.

World-Systems Theory. Karl Marx and Immanuel Wallerstein.

World Sociology Departments.

X Theory. The average person must be forced to work.

Xenophobia is the fear of strangers. Xenophobia is distrust.

Xinhai Chinese Revolution or Chinese Xinhai Revolution.

Yankee Cowboy Thesis relates to American capitalists.

A Yellow Dog Contract restrains unionism.

Youthful Offender System was meant to address youth Violence.

Y Theory

Yuppie is less than 40 and earns a lot more money than others.

Zeitgeist is the spirit of the time characteristic of a period.

Zero Sum Game. The net change is always zero.

Zoning Laws are used as planning tools.

Z Theory was developed by William Ouchi in 'Theory Z'

Copyright 2002 : All rights reserved. Launched on the 27th of March, 2002 to Mark the 60th Birthday of Prof. Son-Ung Kim.