Sociology Index


Sociology is the science whose object is to interpret the meaning of social action. Sociologists explain the ways in which social action takes place and its effects in the functioning and progress of society. Society is the product of interactions between individuals controlled by social customs and traditions. Careers in sociology and career options in sociology offer a satisfying life experience. Index Of Sociologists

The focus of sociology has been social stratification, social bond, social class, social construction of gender, social mobility, social movements, and deviant behavior. Action theory views social action as something purposively shaped by individuals within a context to which they have given meaning. Action theory approach has its foundations in Max Weber's interpretive theory which claims that it is necessary to know the subjective purpose and intent of the actor before an observer can understand the meaning of social action. Modernization theory is a theory of social and economic development, following functionalism or consensus perspective assumptions, that societies need to have harmony among their component parts. Social control theory attempts to explain why most people are law-abiding? Social control theory explains the many ways in which social control works in family, schools, work situations, and even in conscience. Social control ranges from gossip and ridicule to imprisonment and execution. Social contract theory is used to suggest that a group of self-interested and rational individuals came together and formed a contract which created society.

Sociology At A Glance - Index Of Sociology

Accounting Is Rationalizations People Provide For Their Actions.

Acculturation Is The Adaptation To An Alien Culture.

Acephalous society means a society without an head.

Achieved Status Is A Position Attained.

Action Theory Treats The Individual As An Autonomous Subject.

Activism Is Vigorous Action For Social Change And Political Change.

Actus Reus And Mens Rea Are Required For Conviction Under Criminal Law.

Affirmative Action - Why Affirmative Action Is Needed?

Ageism Is Discrimination Against Seniors.

Agency Relationship - One Party Acts On Behalf Of Another.

Ageing Process And The Problems Faced By Old People.

Aging And Sociology of The Life Course.

Alienation Reflects Low Integration And High Isolation.

Alterity Occurs Even In Homogeneous Societies.

Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically.

Altruistic Suicide Is The Act Of Killing Oneself For A Cause

Amazons Are Members Of A Legendary Nation Of Female Warriors.

American Revolution Rejected Monarchy.

Amplification of Deviance.

Analysing Causes Of Terrorism And Their Impact On Society.


Androgyny Is Combination Of Feminine And Masculine Characteristics.

Anomia Is Related To Occupational Aspiration.

Anomic Division Of Labour Is Based On Power And Status.

Anomic Suicide Reflects Disillusionment And Disappointment.

Anomie Describes The Absence Of Clear Societal Norms And Values.

Anti-combines Laws Prevent Corporate Combination.

Antisocial Personality Disorder Is Also Referred To As Sociopathy.

Anti-Semitism is Hostile Attitude to Jews and the Jewish Religion.

Apartheid Is A Policy Of Racial Segregation.

Apartheid Legislation Defined And Enforced Segregation.

Archaeology is not only the hand-maid of history.

Architectural Sociology.

Architectural Sociology.

Aristocracy is Government of a State run by its Elite Citizens.

Ascribed Status Is A Status That Is Automatically Transmitted.

Ascription Explains Why Social Stratification Occurs.

Assimilation can be voluntary and involuntary.

Assumption of Discriminating Traits.

Assumption of Offender Deficit.

Astrosociology Is Intersection Between Space Exploration and Humanity.

Astroturfing Refers To Faking Popular Opinion.

Atavism Is The Tendency To Revert To An Ancestral Type.

Atheism in philosophy.

Attachment Deals With Aspects Of The Social Bond.

Audience Segmentation Is All About Understanding The Audience.

Audience And Audience Studies.

Audio Home Recording Act AHRA.

Australian Copyright Law is Based on the British Model.


Authority Is The Capacity To Secure Compliance From Others.

Absolute Monarchies And Dictatorships Are Modern-Day Forms Of Autocracy.


Autonomous Economy is IT-driven.

Background Knowledge In Ethnomethodology.

Bandwagon Effect causes People To Ignore Their Own Beliefs.

Base Bayh-Dole Act of 1980.

Behavior is human conduct relative to Social Norms.

Belief In Conventional Values, Morality, And Law Berdache Or Two Spirits.

Berlin Wall.

Bioterrorism agents are more potent than conventional nuclear and chemical weapons.

Bilineal Descent is Both Patrilineal Descent and Matrilineal Descent.

Biotechnology And Bioethics.

Bivariate Analysis Tests Hypotheses Of Association And Causality.

Black Collar Crime.

Blog is a shortened version of web-logs or weblogs.

Blue Collar Crime Bourgeois Class.

Bracketing Reveals The Underlying Thinking In Social Action.

Brave New World.

Brezhnev Doctrine justified the intervention of fellow socialist states.


British North America And Canada.

Broken Window Theory: Disorder induces more Disorder.

Brown vs Topeka Board Of Education On Segregation Being Unequal.

Cyberocracy is Bureaucracy Changed by Computers.

Call-out Culture and Cancel Culture create a chilling effect.


Canadian Copyright Law.

Capital Accumulation.



Capital Punishment.

Career Criminal is one whose Criminality is just like a Career.

Career In Intellectual Property Rights Management.

Cargo Cults.

Casting Couch As A Practice Is Illegal In The United States.


Cause and Causal Analysis Is A Positivist Approach To Criminology.

Chaos Theory is the idea that tiny disturbances can cause enormous long-term differences.

Charter Groups Played A Pioneering Role In New Territories.

Chicago School focused on the socio-cultural causes of urban crime and on crime prevention.



Civil Society Is Tied To Cultural Sociology.

Class oppression and class struggles go together.

Classical Conditioning Is A Basic Form Of Learning.

Classical Criminology Is The First Formal School Of Criminology.

Classical Economic Theory Is The First Modern School Of Economic Thought.

Classical Liberalism Is Also Called Laissez-faire Liberalism.

Classical sociology involved the study of the social and not national societies.

Classless Society Is A Society Without A Hierarchy Of Classes.

Claude Lévi-Strauss was a French Anthropologist and Ethnologist.

Closed-Class Society Is Where Class Location Is Ascribed.

Clovis Culture And Clovis Archaeological Culture.

Cluttered Nest Is The Phenomenon Of Young Adults Returning Home.

Cognitive Anthropology Is Also Known As Ethnoscience.

Cohorts share a similar experience at a Particular Time.

Cold War in Comparative Perspective.

Collaborative Community Based On Loyalty.

Collective Behavior is useful is a useful subject in a Society of Mobs and Riots.

Collective Identity And Class Consciousness.

Collective solidarity or community solidarity refers to social bond or interdependency.

Colonialism Is Used Interchangeably With Imperialism.

Command Economy is directed by state authorities.

Commonsense Reasoning is also Referred to as Mundane Reasoning.

Common Law Derives From Feudal England.

Common Law Copyright Doctrine Is The Contention That Copyright Is A Natural Right.

Communism Is For Collective Ownership of Resources and Capital.

Communitarianism Emphasizes The Social Bond Between The Individual And The Community.

Community Psychology Grew Out Of The Community Mental Health Movement.

Community Is A Web Of Ties Linking People In Mutual Bonds.

Community Crime Prevention Strategies Focus on the Community Itself.

Comparative Cultural Studies.

Comprador Elite  are senior corporate managers with connection to foreign corporations.

Computerized Activism is used by grassroots groups all over the world.

Conduct Norms can be Classified as General Conduct Norms and Specific Conduct Norms.


Conflict Perspectives.

Conglomerate is Joined Together by a Corporate Holding Company.

Conscience Collective is the set of shared beliefs, and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force.

Consensual Crimes Are Also Referred To As Victimless Crimes.

Consensus Perspective, Cooperation Perspective And Conflict Perspective.

Consequentialsm is the belief that Ends Justify The Means.

Conservation Movement Includes Preservation Of Biodiversity.


Conspicuous Consumption is Public Display of Discretionary Economic Power.

Constitutional Monarchy Has Only Formal Legal Power.

Consumer Culture Is About What We Consume.

Content Analysis lies in Legal Realism.

Content Development Is Interchangeable With Content Marketing.

Contest Mobility Is Where Recruitment For Positions Is Seen As A Contest.

Continental in US History refers to the Colonies of America.

Contradictions Of Capitalism is Associated with Karl Marx.

Control Groups Are Used In Controlled Experiments To Curb Bias.

Conventional Crimes Are Traditional Illegal Behaviors.

Conversational Analysis Is Also Known As Sequential Analysis.

Corespective Behavior Avoids Cutthroat Competition.

Corporate Crimes Are Committed By Or In A Corporation.

Corporate Culture.

Corporate Elite Are The Senior Executives Of Big Corporations.

Corporatism Is Historically Associated with Fascism.

Corporatocracy is defined as a system that is controlled by corporations.

Corrado Gini.

Correlation Zero Order.

Correspondence Principle is aligned with the Conflict Theory.

Counter-Veblen Effect: Cheap is good in Micro-economics.

Claude Lévi-Strauss was a French Anthropologist and Ethnologist.

Counterculture: Hippies Are A Classic Example Of American Counterculture.

Craft Unions Brings Together Workers Within The Same Craft.

Crime And Criminology Is The Central Focus Of Criminology.

Crime Control Model Versus Due Process Model.

Crime Reduction.

Criminal Recidivism Is Repetition Of Criminal Behavior.

Criminogenic Market Structure Creates Crime.

Critical Theory Was Developed By The Frankfurt School.

Critical Criminology Is Study Using A Conflict Perspective.

Crony Capitalism arises when Political Cronyism extends into the Business Domain.

Cross Cousin is Maternal Uncle's Child or Paternal Aunt's Child.

Cross-cultural Analysis is also known as Comparative Analysis.


Cross-sectional Research Is Analogous To One Still Picture.

Copyright with Special Copyright Rules for the Crown.

Crown Corporation is an Organization Established by the Government.

Cults Arise Spontaneously Around Novel Beliefs And Practices.

Cultural Capital.

Cultural Construction Is Shaped By Cultural Assumptions.

Cultural Ecology is the Interaction between Culture and Environment.

Cultural Industries.

Cultural Studies was associated with the Frankfurt School.

Culturally Prescribed Aspirations.

Cultural Anthropology.

Cultural Challenges.

Cultural Colonialism Is The Control Of Other Nations' Values And Perceptions.

Cultural Explanation.

Cultural Genocide Is The Systematic Destruction Of A Culture.

Cultural Power Dominating Other National Cultures.

Cultural Production.

Cultural Revolution Marked The Return Of Mao Zedong.

Culture and Cognition.

Culture And Cultural Studies.

Culture Shock occurs when there is Disruption of Normal Assumptions about Values and Behavior.

Culture In Society Is Made Of Shared Knowledge, Beliefs And Values.

Culture Of Poverty Thesis And Low Class Culture Thesis.

Cult Of Of Domesticity And Cult Of True Womanhood.

Cybercommunity And Virtual Community.

Cybercrimes are Identity Theft, Phishing, and Stealing Personal Information.

Cyberculture And Other Subcultures Like Cyberpunks And Transhumanism.

Cyberocracy Is Bureaucracy Driven By Information Technology.

Cybersociology Covers Cybercummunity In Cyberspace.

Cyborgs And The Enhanced Cyborg.

Dark Figure Of Crime In The Official Statistics.


Deconstruction Is A Concept Central To Postmodernism.

Deep Ecology is a set of ideas within the environmental movement.

Deficit Is The Gap Between Revenues And Expenditures.

Defining The Situation Is The Idea Of Framing A Situation.

Deinstitutionalization is reducing populations held in institutions of involuntary confinement.

Demand Mobility.

Demand Characteristics cannot be Eliminated.

Democide Covers Murder Of Any Number Of Persons By Any Government.

Democracy In Greek Is Rule By The People.

Democratic Deficit has Increased Because of Globalization and the Growth of MNCs.

Demographic transition involves declining death rates while birth rates remain high.

Demography is the Study of Populations, its Size and Structure.

Dependency Ratio Shows Population Depending On Those Working.

Dependent Development is a Central Concept of Dependency Theory.

Dependent Variables Represent The Output Whose Variation Is Being Studied.

Descriptive Statistic and Mean, Median Or Mode.


Determinism Is Contrasted With Free Will.

Developing An IP Strategy To Sustain Competitive Advantage.

Developmental Crime Prevention Is An Early Intervention Approach.

Deviant Behavior.

What Is Deviant Behavior? What Is Deviance?


Dictatorship Is Generally Contrasted With Democracy.

Differential Association Means That Different Situations Lead To Different Learning.

Diffuseness Of Roles And Diffuseness Of Goals.

Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

Digital Divide can impact a growing Digital Economy.

Direct Investment.

Discomgoogolation Or Doogled Is Internet Dependence.

Discourse Analysis identifies the intersection of language and social structure.

Discrimination refers to negative treatment.

Disenfranchised Means To Be Without The Right To Vote.


Distributive Justice and Retributive Justice.

Division Of Labour.

Documentary Method Of Interpretation Is Used In Commonsense Reasoning.

Dominant Ideology Thesis.

Double blind procedure is a method of enhancing internal validity in an experiment.

Double Burden, Double Day, Double Duty, And Second Shift.

Double Standard Refers To Different Norms Of Sexual Morality.

Dowry is Transfer of Wealth from the Bride's Family.

Dramaturgical model interprets individual behavior as the dramatic projection of a chosen self.

Due Process Model Is Values And Practices Protecting The Rights Of Offenders.

Duopoly Is An Oligopoly Of Two Controlling The Entire Market.

Ebayization is like Mcdonaldisation and Globalization.


Ecological Fallacy is the error made in reasoning about differing Units of Analysis.

Ecological Studies was developed by criminologists.

Ecology is the Study of Living Beings' Relationships and World.

Economic Sociology is one of the most progressive fields of Sociology Today.

Economic Determinism And Marx's Views As Unidimensional.

Economic Mobility Is Measured By Movement In Household Income.

Economic Sociology of Capitalism is about Capitalism And Socialism.

Educational Inequality Continues to Perpetuate Inequality.

Effective Guardianship is Routine Activities Approach To Crime.

Egalitarianism Considers All People Equal With Equal Rights.

Ego is the Outcome of the Individual's Struggle to Adapt their Basic Drives to the Control of Society.

Egoistic Suicide Occurs Due To Lack Of Social Integration.

Eileen Vartan Barker.

Eldred vs Ashcroft And the Constitutionality of the Sonny Bono CTEA.

Electrodermal Activity and Responses to Distractors.

Electronic Civil Disobedience and Hacktivism are Modern Phenomena.

Embedded Technology.

Embourgeoisement Thesis And The Culture Of Poverty.

Emigration refers to Migration out of a Nation.

Emotional Labor Fulfills The Emotional Requirements Of A Job.

Empirical Evidence Refers To Objective Evidence.

Employment Equity Implies Proportionate Hiring Of Various Groups.

Empty Nesters are Parents whose Children have Matured and Moved out.

Enculturation is the process by which people acquire values and norms of an alien culture.

Endogamy by Social Class is also known as Social Endogamy.

Enlightenment Project Is Apparent In Some Of The Works Of Karl Marx.

Environmental movement addresses Environmental Issues.

Epidemiology is a term Used Largely in Medical Sociology.

Epistemology Deals with the Grounds and Validity of Knowledge.

Equality Of Condition Is Rare In Complex Societies.

Equality Of opportunity In Individual's Wealth, Status and Power.

Equality Of Outcome is Contrasted with Equality of Opportunity.

Esteem Is Social Status Independent Of Income, Wealth Or Power.

Ethnic Group And Ethnic Identity.

Ethnocentrism Is Assumption of Superiority Of One's Own Group.

Enthnographic Research Learns From People.

Ethnomethodology Is The Study Of People's Practices And Methods.

Etiological Factors Encourage A Particular Outcome.

Eugenics good genes and selective breeding.

Euthanasia Assisted Suicide.

Evolutionary Psychology focuses primarily on Questions of "Why?"

Exceptional State Relies on the Coercive Power of the State.

Exchange Value is Theoretical Value of any Commodity Exchanged.

Executive Disengagement.

Exhaustion Of Rights as explained by the European Commission.

Existentialism Posits That Humans Find Themselves In A Existing World.

Exogamy Is The Custom Of Seeking A Mate Outside Kinship Group.

Experimental Group Receives The Actual Drug In A Study.

Exponential Growth Is Growth With A Geometric Progression.

External Validity Is Confirmation Of Research Results In The Real World.

Extraversion is Associated with Sociability, Impulsiveness and Aggression.

Fabian Society Was Founded To Advance Democratic Socialism.

Fair use is based on free speech rights provided by the First Amendment.

False Negative Is Wrongly Identifying Someone As Non-dangerous.

False Positive is False Alarm or False Positive Error.

Falsifiability or refutability means that a theory can be proved wrong because it failed a critical test.

Familism refers to Core Values which emphasize Family As A Unit.


Fashion And Consumer Culture.

Fashion Culture. What is fashion culture?

Fatalistic Suicide Occurs When Hopeless Situation Calls For Suicide As A Solution.

Fault Tree Analysis For Performing Reliability Analysis.

Fecundity refers to a Woman's Potential to Bear Children.

Federalism Asymmetrical does not Accord Equal Powers to Constituent States.

Federalism Centripetal has a strong federal government and weaker provincial governments

Feminism Is A Diverse Political And Intellectual Movement.

Feminization of Poverty.

Feral Child.

Fertility Rate is the number of children born in Fertile Years.


Fiscal Crisis Occurs When Government Expenditures Exceed Government Revenues.

Fiscal Policy.

Flat Tax Contrasts With Progressive Taxation.

Folk Society Is A Society With Little Complexity.

Forces of Production is the Essential Components of the Economic System.

Fordism refers to the System of Mass Production or Assembly Line.

Forms of government include autocracy, dictatorship, fascism, and technocracy.

Frankenstein depicts the creation of a man or monster through the application of science.

Frankfurt School Examined Culture as a Lived Experience.

Fratricide is the act of killing one's brother.

Free Trade Zones Are Meant To Facilitate Cross Border Trade.

Freelance Economy is also known as the Gig Economy.

Free Market Economics And Laissez-faire Economy.

French Revolution brought the ideas of Liberty, Equality and Democracy.

Freudian Slip is the Unintentional Slip of the Tongue.

Friedman Doctrine Views Shareholders As Engine Of The Organization.

Functionalism Is Often Referred To As Consensus Theory.

Functionalist Expanation Perspective Offers Explanation About Society And Human Behavior.

Game Theory Develops Formulas To Identify Optimal Strategies.

Gemeinschaft And Gesellschaft Society.

Gender and Women Studies.

Gender Roles Ascribed On The Basis Of Sex.

Gender Socialization And The Power Differentials.

Gender Gap In Pay Is An Expression Of The Generally Devalued Social Status Of Women.

Gender Identities Are Many And Exist Beyond The Binary.

Gender Inequality Emerged out of Skewed Perceptions and Social Constructions.

Generalized Other is a Concept of Continuing Usefulness to Development Psychologists.

General Deterrence And Specific Deterrence.

Genericized Trademarks and Generic Terms.

Genocide is systematic killing of an entire ethnic community.

Geographical Indication Is Used To Identify Goods From A Particular Place.

Gerontocracy is the Rule by Elders.

Geropsychology Researches Questions Related To Health And Aging.

Giffen Goods Violate The Basic Law Of Demand In Economics.

Gift is Marcel Mauss' 1925 Essay.

Gig Economy is also known as the Freelance Economy.

Gini Coefficient.

Glass Ceiling Hypothesis is the invisible hypothetical barrier faced by women.

Globalization Describes An Interdependence Of Nations.

Globalization's Challenges.

Goods Producing Producing Economy Is Contrasted With Service Economy.

Green Collar Crimes Are Committed Against The Environment.

Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change.

Green Revolution refers to Rise in Agricultural Productivity.

Gross Counts Of Crime Makes No Distinction In Crime Categories.

Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Income.

Grounded Theory.

Guerrilla Warfare vs Terrorism.


Harm Reduction Is About Harm Minimization.

Harold Garfinkel Established and Developed Ethnomethodology in Sociology.

Harriet Martineau Was The First Woman Sociologist.

Harry Braverman was involved in American Trotskyist Movement.

Hawthorne Effect is an increase in Worker Productivity at GE.

Health Tourism In Russia.

Health Tourism in Saudi Arabia.

Hegemony is used in Discussion of a Patriarchal Society.

Heritability is the Extent to Which a Characteristic of a Living Organism is Genetically Determined.

Heterogamy Is A Marriage Between People Who Are Culturally Different.

Heterophily Is Noticed In Successful Organizations.

Heuristic Device Is Used For Thinking About Social Phenomena.

Hidden Curriculum is the Norms and Values Indirectly Conveyed.

Hierarchy is the Structuring of Social Status and Role within an Organization or Society.

Hierarchy of Needs Maslow.

Historical Sociology.

Historical Materialism is the Central Concept of Social Analysis.

Homogamy is only a Descriptive Concept and not based on Rules.


Homophobia And Hate Speech Threaten Democracy And Human Rights.

Honor killings And Honor Crimes In A Patriarchal Society.

Horizontal Integration Is Sectoral Concentration.

Horizontal Social Mobility is the transition on the same level.

Human Ecology is the relationship between Humans and their Environment.

Human rights are protected as natural and legal rights in international law.

Humanism asserts the central importance of human life.

Human Capital Is The Capabilities That Individuals Contribute.

Human capital accumulation.

Hunter Gatherer Society is the Earliest Form of Human Society.


Hyperglobalization Occurs When States Are Decision Takers.

Hypotheses Of Terrorism And Cost-benefit Calculus.

Hypothesis Requires Researcher To Either Confirm Or Disprove It.

Hypothetico-deductive model of science.

I and me compared with Sartre's choice and situation.

Id Is The Unconscious Drives And Psychic Energies Of Humans.

Idealism Asserts the Primacy of Consciousness as the Origin and Prerequisite of Material Phenomena.

Ideal Type is an Abstract Classic Model of Social Phenomenon.

Idea-Expression Dichotomy. Identity Crisis.

Identity Poltics.

Ideographic Explanations Are Explanations Of Specific Events.

Ideological Hegemony is a system of Thought Control.

Ideology is the Imaginary Relation to the Real Conditions of Existence.

Immigration is the Movement of Peoples into a Country.

Imperialism is the domination by one country over Others.

Incapacitation is Punishing People for what they Might Do.

Incidence Is A Contrasting Term To Prevalence.

Income inequality is uneven income distribution.

Inconspicuous Consumption Distinguishes The Rich.

Independent Variable.

Indexicality refers to the contextual nature of behavior and talk.

Index of socio-economic status is used to measure indicators like Income or Education.

Indictable Offense is the Opposite of Summary Offense.

Indigenous Peoples Are People Inhabiting A Land Before Colonization.

Individual Pathology Is Biological Or Psychological Traits.

Individualism Upholds Choice And Personal Freedom.

Inductive Reasoning Vs Deductive Reasoning.

Industrialization Refers To Mass Manufacturing.

Industrial Relations Is Workplace Relationships Between Workers And Management.

Industrial Revolution Refers To Profound Technological Changes.

Inequality Of Condition is a Characteristic of all Complex Societies.

Inequality of Opportunity is Pervasive in the Developing World.

Inequality Of Outcome And Inequality Of Condition Are Both Controversial Political Concepts.

Inference Is The Process Of Moving From An Indicator To Conclusion.

Inferiorization Is The Imposition Of Inferiorized Identity On A Group.

Informal Economy Is Hidden Economy.

Information Society is information-enabled knowledge-based society.

Infrastructure Is The Services And Facilities Necessary For An Economy.

Institution Social And Total.

Instructional Design Model.

Instrumentalist Marxism is the Role of State from Marxist Perspective.

Insurgent And Insurgency.

Intellectual Property Case Law.

Intellectual Property Rights And Laws Protect Works of the Intellect.

Intellectual Property Management.

Interaction Is Communication Between People Or Organizations.

Interest Group Politics From a Comparative Perspective.

Intergenerational Mobility Over Time.

Internal Validity Is Criteria Against Which Results Are Judged.

Internet Law CyberLaw involves international jurisdictions.

Internment is Segregation and Confinement of Suspicious Persons.

Interpretive Theory is also called interpretative approach and theory of sense.

Interpretivist/Interpretivism In Sociology.

Intersubjetivity helps us relate one situation to another.

Invisible Hand Of The Market.

Invovement Of States In Terrorism.

Involvement Is The Degree To Which An Individual Is Active.

Irene Barnes Taeuber And Population Research.

Iron Cage Of Self Perpetuating Rationalization And Depersonalisation.

Iron law of oligarchy always obtains.

Jan Aart Scholte's Globalization Definition.

Jekyll and Hyde is about the good side and hidden evil side to a person's character.

Jim Crow Laws Worked Against Blacks And Jane Crow Laws Worked Against Women.

Judeo-Christian Ethics Has Been Part Of American Politics, Law And Morals.

Juristic Personality, Juridical Personality, Artificial Personality And Legal Entity.

Juvenilization Of Poverty Is Increase In Poverty Among Children.

Kakistocracy means Government by the Worst People.

Karaoke Capitalism refers to concepts such as Benchmarking.

Keynesian Economics is the Economic Theory of John Maynard Keynes.

Kinsey Reports Suggested That Homosexuality Was Common And Normal.

Kinship Structure defines central organizational principle of Traditional Societies.

Knowledge Capital may also be referred to as intellectual capital.

Knowledge Economy.

Labeling Theory.

Labour Theory Of Value is associated with Marxist Economics.

Labour Market Segmentation Into Primary Labor Market And Secondary Labor Market.

Laissez Faire Is An Injunction Against Government Interference.

Lateral Integration Is An Alternative Term For Horizontal Integration.

Law Definition As Body Of Rules That Are Formally Enacted.

Left Realism Can Be Contrasted With Left Idealism.

Left-libertarianism Can Imply Egalitarian Redistribution.

Legitimation Crisis Occurs When Government Is Unable To Govern.

Leninism could be defined as adherence to a purely political-tactical set of principles.

Levels of Measurement and Scales of Measure are expressions that refer to scale types.

Liberal Feminism Primarily Focuses On Women's Ability.

Liberalism Wagers That A State Can Be Strong But Constrained.

Libertarianism Implies What Are Commonly Considered Left-wing Views.

Lifestyle Exposure Theory is a theory of victimization.

Longitudinal Research Is A Series Of Cross-sectional Investigations.

Longitudinal Studies Measure Relationships Between Variables Over Time.

Looking Glass Self Was A Formulation Of Symbolic Interactionism.

Lorenz Curve Was Developed To Describe The Extent Of Inequality.

Low Class Culture Transmits Lower Values To Children.

Luddites Displayed An Intense Opposition To Increased Industrialization.

Lumpenproletariat Are Unemployable People Who Make No Positive Contribution.

Macho Or Machismo Is The Quality Of Being Macho.

Macro-Perspective is a Way of seeing Society as a Unified Whole.

Mafia Is A Term Originally Used To Identify Ethnic Sicilian Crime Groups.

Magic Is Beliefs And Practices Which Are Not Verifiable.

Majority Group Refers To A Group in Power.

Malthusian Crisis Refers To population crisis.

Managerial Revolution.

Marginalization And Social Exclusion.

Market Economy.

Marshall Inquiry Investigated Wrongful Conviction Of Donald Marshall Jr.

Marxism Is The Ideas And Theories Associated With Karl Marx.

Marxism And Darvinism Is About Theories Of Robert Darwin and Karl Marx.

Marxist Feminism Theory Posits That Socialism Should Replace Capitalism.

Masculine females demonstrate features of the masculine gender.

Masculinization is a term applied to female criminality.

Mask Work is a Two or Three-dimensional Layout of an Integrated Circuit.

Mass Communication And Mass Society.

Mass Destruction, Terrorism, And WMD.

Mass Media is targeted at the mass rather than at specific groups or communities.

Mass culture was boosted by modern communications and electronic media.

Mass Society Refers To A Society With A Mass Culture.

Master Status Overrides Other Status In Importance.

Materialism contrasts with dualism, phenomenalism, idealism, vitalism and dual-aspect monism.

Matriarchy Is A Society In Which Women Possess Authority.

Matrilineal Descent Is A Form Of Unilineal Descent That Follows A Female Line.

Matrilineal Societies Trace Descent Through Mothers.

Matrilocal Residence And Matrilocality.


Maturational Reform Is Observed When Crime Decreases As People Age.

Matza's Notion Of Drift is the Unintentional Crime among the Youth.

May Day Is For Celebration Of Labor And Honors Labor.

McCarthyism stood for accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason.

McDonaldization is commonly used to refer to globalization.

Mcjob and McWorld Are Concepts Related To The Analysis Of Corporate Culture.

McWorld is a concept developed by Benjamin Barber.

Me Refers To Self That Is Aware Of The Expectations Of Others.

Mean is commonly called an Average.

Means Test To Assess A Grant.

Measure of Crime.

Mechanical solidarity Is Found in Traditional And Small Scale Societies.

Median Is A Measure Of Data At The Ratio Levels Of Measurement.

Medieval Period is known as the Middle Ages or the Dark Ages.

Medium is the message


Membership categorization is description and identification of people.

Mens Rea Means Criminal Intent.

Mercantilism is an economic theory that preceded the modern concept of a market economy.

Meritocracy is Rule by Those Chosen on the Principle of Merit.

Metanarrative Clauses in a Story Increases with Age.

Metaphysics studies questions related to what it is for something to exist.

Meta-Analysis Is Analyses Of A Collection Of Research Results.

Method Is The Instrument One Uses To Measure Crime, Height, or Weight.

Methodological Holism regards individuals or elements as reciprocally influencing each other.

Methodological Individualism is the hallmark of positivism.

Methodology is a body of Methods, Rules, and Postulates.

Metropolis-Hinterland Theory And Centre-Periphery Theory.

Micro Perspective is about a person and the others.

Micro and Macro Sociology.

Middle Class Is The Petite Bourgeoisie.

Military Sociology is the Study of the Military from a Sociological Perspective.

Military Dictatorship.

Millennium is a Period of One Thousand Years or a Thousandth Anniversary.

Ministerial Responsibity Is That The Minister Is Answerable To Parliament.

Minority Group is a Group which is on the Margins of Power or Status.

Minority Problems And The Nation-state Concept.

Miscegenation Is Interbreeding Of Different Racial Groups.

Misogyny is a Cultural Attitude of Hatred for Females because they are Female.

Mobility may be Inter-generational or Intra-generational.

Mode is interchangeably used with maximum-ordinate.

Modeling Is Learning As A Result Of Watching And Imitating.

Modernization Theory is about social and economic development.

Mode Of Production.

Monarchy Is Rule By One Person, Either The King Or The Queen.

Monetarism is Closely Associated with Neo-conservatism.

Monetary Policy Monogamy is used to Specifically Refer to Marital Monogamy.

Monopoly is Characterized by a Lack of Economic Competition.

Monozygotic Twins Are Commonly Known As Identical Twins.

Montreal Massacre Is An Anti-feminist Attack.

Moral panic is a panic or overreaction to Forms of Deviance.

Moral Rights And Copyrights are distinct from any Economic Rights Tied to Copyright.

Moral Development Theory is distinguished from other Developmental Theories.

Moral Economy Offers An Antithesis To The Rational Choice Imperatives.

Moral Entrepreneurs Construct Deviance.

Moral Pluralism is also known as Ethical Pluralism or Value Pluralism.

Moral Rhetoric Is Used Justify Unfairness, or Exploitation, or Moral Failing.

Motivated Offenders Are Ready And Motivated To Engage In Deviant Acts.

Mulatto Is An Individual With Mixed Black And White Heritage.

Multiculturalism Is The Acceptance Of Various Cultural Divisions.

Multinational Corporation Is Abbreviated To MNC.

Multivariate Analysis Is A Form Of Quantitative Analysis.

Mundane Reasoning Is Also Referred To As Commonsense Reasoning.

Mutual Conversion To Deviant Behavior Is Achieved Interactively.

Mystification Is The Masking Of Central Aspects Of Society.

Myth Refers To A Narrative Of Collective Wisdom Of A Society.

Mythosociology Is A Nature-centered Approach.

Narcissism is not the same as Egocentrism.

Nation is similar to Society and Humans are divided into Nations.

Nationalism is an Ideology and Movement that promotes the interests of a Particular Nation.

Nationalization Is The Public Ownership Of Economic Resources.

Native Indians Are A Racial Formation.

Natural Attitude Lets people to carry out daily activities with Little Forethought.

Naxalism And Maoism Are Movements Meant To Tackle Inequality.

Nazism is the Political Dotrine of the National Socialist Party of Germany.

Necessary Condition is one that must be Satisfied for the Statement to be True.

Negotiation Of Criminal Status Refers To Defining Criminality.

Neoliberalism is an Economic Concept.

Neocolonialism Is A Term Used By Post-colonial Critics.

Neolocal Residence is new residence independent of the couples' parents.

Neoconservatism is a Robust Strain in American Intellectual Life and American Politics.

Netherlands Copyright Law.

Net Widening Is A Term Used Within Critical Criminology.

New France or The French North American Empire.

New Deal.


Norms Are Culturally Established Rules For Social Behaviour.

Nothing Works is used by Those Opposed to Rehabilitation.

Null hypothesis is a hypothesis of no difference or of no association between variables - Nuremberg Trials.

Objectivity is Central to the procedures of the Scientific Method.

Occupational Distance.

Occupational Structure is division of work force.

Occupational Crime.

Oligarchy Is A Social System Ruled By Few People.

Oligopoly is where a Few Companies Own the Production of a Good.

One Big Union movement Supported The Entire Industries Model Over The Craft Unions Model.

One-Percenter And The American Motorcycle Gypsy Tour.

Open-Class Ideology Is A Component Part Of Liberal Ideology.

Operant Conditioning. Behavior shaped by Reinforcement, or by Punishment.

Operationalization in quantitative research is specifying how a concept will be measured.

Operationally defined means an operational definition which articulates operationalization.

Opportunity Structure the way the Society is Structured For Opportunity.

Organic Solidarity refers to a state of interdependency created by the specialization of roles.

Organizational crime is white-collar crime committed with the support of a formal organization.

Organizational culture is the personality of the organization.

Organized Crime Is An Enterprise Engaging In Illegal Activities.

Overrepresentation in crime statistics.

Panel Study Is A Form Of Longitudinal Research.


Paradigm is a Set Of Concepts or Thought Patterns.

Paradigm Shift Occurs When Sets Of Assumptions Change Over Time.

Parallel Cousins vs Cross Cousins.

Parallel Cousins Are Offspring Of Siblings Of The Same Sex.

Paramount Chieftainship Is The Highest Level Traditional Chieftainship.

Pareto Analysis Uses The Pareto Principle Known As The 80/20 Rule.

Parsis are Persians who emigrated to India.

Participatory Research.

Patriarchy is found where men dominate over women in wealth, status and power.

Patrilineal Descent Is Reckoned Through Blood Links Of Males.

Patrilocal residence refers to newly married couple taking up residence in the groom's family.


Pattern Variables Are Dichotomies Developed By Talcott Parsons.

Pay equity refers to Elimination of Pay Differentials.

Penitentiary, Jail, Prison, And Correction Facilities Are Different.

Penology is the Study of Treatment and Punishment of Offenders.

Personality And Socialization.

Per Capita Means For Each Head, or Per Individual.

Petite Bourgeoisie.

Phenomenology was developed by the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.

Phenomenological Sociology.

Physical Anthropology is the Science of Evolution And Ecology.

Physiological Approach to terrorism.

Piltdown Man is a great Science Hoax.

Pink Collar Crimes Are Committed By Women With Less Power.

Pink Collar.

Pink-collar ghetto.

Plant Variety Laws And Protection.

Pluralism in United States is a Classic Example of Genuine Cultural Pluralism.

Plutocracy Is Rule By Wealthy People.

Polarization of classes in Marxian analysis.

Police culture is an example of occupational culture to which new recruits become socialized.

Polish copyright law.

Political Crime And Institutionalized Political Crime.

Political Socialization is a Foundational Aspect of Political Consciousness Development.

Political Sociology is the Study of Socio-Political Phenomena.

Political Activism.

Political Capital Is Built On Social Capital And Human Capital.

Political Culture includes Political Ideals and the Operating Norms of a Polity.

Political Policing Is The Policing Of Community Acts.

Politics refers to Processes that Involve the Exercise of Power, Status or Influence.

Polity Shapes The Way The Society Is Governed.

Polyandry is Polygamy in which a Woman has two or more Husbands.

Polygamy is having more than one spouse living at the same time.

Polyandry is Contrasted with Polygyny.

Popular Culture And Pop Culture.

Population studies and demography is about the study of populations.

Population Index includes All Members of a given Class or Set.

Populistainment is a supplement to ideology and traditionally understood party politics.

Positive Deviance Includes Acts Like Whistle-blowing.

Positive And Negative Sanctions Is Response To Behavior.

Positive School is the First Scientific School of Criminology.

Positivism Places Science In A Privileged Position.

Post-Critical Criminology.

Postmodern is movements in modernism and modern assumptions.

Postmodernism rejects boundaries between high and low forms of art.

Poststructuralism Is A Response To Structuralism.

Post-Industrial Thesis Tells Us What It Used To Be, But No Longer Is.

Post-Sale Restrictions Deprive The Right To Resell The Products.

Potlatch is a Gift-giving Feast practiced by Indigenous Peoples.

Power Is The Capacity To Achieve Goals Even When Opposed.

Power-Control Theory and an Extended Power-control Theory.

Prejudice is judgment not based on reason or actual experience.

Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.

Prevalence means Proportion which is Expressed as a Percentage.

Pre-experimental Design Is Not An Authentic Experiment.

Primary Labour Market Offers Higher Wages And More Stability.

Primary Deviance Is Often A Temporary Transgression.

Primitive Communism is Associated with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Primitive Society Denotes Early Human Society.

Prisoner's Dilemma is a Game Analyzed in Game Theory.

Prisonization Is The Process Of Being Socialized Into Prison Culture.

Prison Subculture is the Culture of Prison Society.

Private sector refers to that part of the economy which is controlled or owned by private individuals.

Private Domain Describes Women's Location In Society.

Privatization Is Transferring Ownership from the Public Sector to the Private Sector.

Probability Sample Ensures Equal Random Selection.

Problematic is a term used in ethnomethodology. Norms are forever problematic.

Procedural Law Is The Rules Governing Procedure Of The Courts.

Profession Is An Occupational Group That Is Largely Self-regulating.

Progressive Taxation Progressively Increases The Tax.

Progressivism as the urban counterpart to Populism.

Proletariat is the social class that does not have ownership.

Proportional Taxation Lies Between Regressive Taxation and Progressive Taxation.

Protestantism as a doctrine is opposite Roman Catholicism.

Protestant Ethic.

Psychoanalysis Is A Method Of Investigation Of The Mind.

Psychological Reductionism is Linked with the Mind-Body Problem.

Psychopathy is a Personality Disorder Characterized Impaired Empathy and Remorse.

Public Domain is as Important to Innovation and Culture as Intellectual Property.

Public Sector has Social rather than Financial Objectives.

Public Health Model looks at crimes like drug abuse and prostitution as public health issues.

Public images of crime is the public perception of crime.

Punditocracy is drawn from the nation's leading Op-ed pages.

Punishment is a Negative Sanction Imposed on the Violator.

Qualitative Research.

Quantitative analysis.

Quantitative Research.


Quasi-realism is a form of Non-cognitivism or Expressivism.

Queer culture is LGBT subculture.

Race Classification System Includes Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid And Australoid.

Racism Occurs Where Past Injustices Lead To Present Inequalities.

Radical Feminism is Recent and Differs from Traditional Marxism.

Randomized Testing Must Ensure That Tests Are Random.

Rate Is Synonym Of Frequency.

Rationality Is A Human's Basic Virtue and the Source of all Human Virtues.

Rationalization affects economic life, law, administration, and religion.

Rational Choice Theory is an Empirical Theory of Human Behavior.

Reaction Formation.

Red-Collar Crimes are Written Off as Crimes of Passion.

Reference Group.

Reflexivity Means That An Object Or Behavior And The Description Have A Mirror-like Relationship.

Regression analysis allows you to examine the relationship between two or more variables of interest.

Regressive Taxation structure requires the well-off to pay a lower percentage of their income in tax.

Rehabilitative Ideal is belief that punishment is to Effect A Change.

Reification Is Treating That Which Is Abstract As Tangible.

Reinforcement And Punishment.

Relative Autonomy is state power based on Marxist Ideas.

Reliability Refers To Consistency Of Results Over Time.


Religious Right has Socially Conservative Views of many Fundamentalist Religions.

Republic Is A Society With No Hereditary Head Of State.

Reserve Army Of Labour.

Resocialization is Re-engineering of Vaues and Norms.

Restructuring, Debt Restructuring And Financial Restructuring.

Retribution must be Distinguished from Revenge and Retaliation.

Reverse Discrimination is Discrimination in Favor of Members of Historically Disadvantaged Group.

Revolutions Transformed Society, Culture, Philosophy, And Technology.

Right Of Publicity Is Very Similar To The Tort Of Appropriation.

Right-libertarianism is also known as Libertarian Capitalism.

Rites of Passage is Graduation passage from One Stage to the Next.

Ritual is an action performed because of its Symbolic Significance.

Role Theory was a central piece of Merton's Theory of Social Groups.

Role Is A Position Within Social Structure Shaped By Norms.

Role Convergence And Rising Crime Rate Among Women.

Role Distancing Is A Concept From Dramaturgical Sociology.

Role Playing occurs when One Pretends Role of Another.

Role Strain Is The Stress From The Performance Of A Role.


Role Theory also includes categories of Social Roles like Cultural Roles and Gender Roles.

Romani Customs And Traditions.

Routine Activity Theory.

Rule of law Rural Sociology Involves The Examination Of Rural Statistical Data And Rural Development.

Russia St. Nicholas of Myra Became The Santa Claus To The world.

Russian Revolution Refers to a Series of Revolutions in Russia.

Sacred-Profane Dichotomy.


Sample And Non-random Samples.

Scholasticism places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning.

Scientific Management Is To Improve Efficiency And Productivity.

Scientific Methods Discover The Causes And The Relationships Between Variables.

Secondary Deviance is the internalizing of deviant identity.

Secondary labour market refers to low paying labor intensive jobs.

Secondary Sexual Characteristics.

Sect And Political Sect.

Secularization is the process of organizing society or social life around non-religious values or principles.

Sedition, treason and insurrection are terms used to describe acts against a legally elected government.

Self-actualization theory is the motive to realize one's full potential.

Selfish Gene.

Self-control is a key concept in the general theory of crime.

Self-Government Also Means Self-determination.

Self-reported Delinquency.

Self-Report Studies.

Separation of Powers.

Sequential Analysis is one of Three Central Themes In Ethnomethodology.

Serfs and Serfdom flourished in Europe till the 19th Century.

Service Economy is Based on Provision of Service.

Sexting is another manifestation of Cyberbullying.

Sexual Dimorphism is Differences between Males and Females.

Sexual Division Of Labour.

Sexual Stratification and Gender Difference.

Sex, Sex typing and Sexism.

Shifting Agriculture.

Signifier And The Signified.

Silent Spring Without Voices.

Situational Crime Prevention Strategies That Aim At Reducing Criminal Opportunities.

Slavery And Slaves Symbolized The Dominance Of The Victor Over The Vanquished.

Snob Effect refers to the Desire to Possess a Unique Commodity having a Prestige Value.

Social Activism Brings About Social Change.

Social Anthropology.

Social Capital Facilitates Cooperation For Mutual Benefit.

Social Change.

Social Contract Is Agreed Upon Norms And Values.

Social Control is the central fact and the central problem of society.

Social Customs And Traditions In Argentina.

Social Customs And Traditions In Poland.

Social Customs And Traditions In Sri Lanka.

Social Customs And Traditions Of The World.

Social Customs And Traditions In Spain.

Social Inequality Leads To Educational Inequality.

Social Mobiity is movement within a Stratification System.

Social Movements And Social Activism.

Social organization.

Social planning utilizes community values through policy goals.

Social power permeates all human relationships and shapes us as individuals.

Social Problems involes the Study of Poverty and all Types of Inequality.

Socal Psychology Bridges the Gap between Psychology and Sociology.

Social stratification lies at the core of society.

Social Structure is the patterned arrangement of Social Role and Social Status.

Socialism is a political doctrine of collectivity.

Socialist Feminism sees Gender and Class Oppression as Inseparable.

Socialization is the Learning and Internalizing of the Culture of a Society or Group.

Social Analysis Explores Historical And Structural Relationships.

Social Bond is the Degree to which an Individual is Integrated into the Society.

Social Class is individuals sharing a common situation.

Social Construction of Gender is part of Feminism.

Social Construction of Reality is an aspect of Interpretive Perspectives.

Social Control Theory attempts to explain why it is that all of us do not commit crime.

Social Customs And Traditions Of Bhutan.

Social Customs And Traditions In Cambodia.

Social Customs And Traditions In China.

Social Customs And Traditions Of India.

Social Customs And Traditions In Indonesia.

Social Customs and Traditions In Nepal.

Social Customs And Traditions In Japan.

Social Customs And Traditions In Korea.

Social Customs And Traditions In Malaysia.

Social Customs In Philippines And Social Traditions In Philippines.

Social Customs And Traditions In Thailand.

Social Darwinism was the Basis for Hitler's Notion of Superiority of the Aryan Race.

Social democracy is an assertion of citizens' rights and the entitlement of all citizens to share equally.

Social disorganization theory was developed by the Chicago School.

Social Economy helps in Creating an Inclusive Society.

Social exchange theory is linked to rational choice theory and structuralism.

Social Identity assumes some commonalities with others.

Social Integration.

Social Interaction is the Process by which People Act And React.

Social Intervention Programs are designed to change and improve the social situation of individuals.

Social Maps Is A Visual Representation Of A Social Network.

Social Market Economy.

Social Movements.

Social Network.

Social Order Consists Of A Set Of Shared Social Norms.

Social Policy was Developed to Complement to Social Work Studies.

Social Reaction Theory.

Social Relations Of Production Refers To Class Structure.

Social Segmentation could be Based on Social Status or Cultural Status.

Social Solidarity, Mechanical Solidarity, Collective Solidarity And Organic Solidarity.

Social Status.

Social Strain is Functionalist Approach to Systems Theory.

Social Technologies Help Seek And Share Information.

Society and atheism have evolved throughout history.

Society Is A Human Community Sharing A Common Culture.

Socioeconomic Development.

Sociobiology Begins with the Assumption that Humans are Animals.

Socioeconomic Status is used to operationalize or measure social class.

Sociological Methodology.

Sociological Theories.

Sociological Imagination is a Sociological Vision.

Sociology And Literature

Sociology Of Children And Childhood.

Sociology of Arts is concerned with the Social Worlds of Arts and Aesthetics.

Sociology of death and dying.

Sociology of Disability.

Sociology Of Drugs And Alcohol.

Sociology of Education and the multidimensionality of education.

Sociology of Environment And What is Environmentalism?

Sociology of Family.

Sociology Of Films.

Sociology Of Gambling.

Sociology of groups.

Sociology of Health and Medicine.

Sociology Of Knowledge.

Sociology of Law.

Sociology Of Leisure And Sport.

Sociology Of Music Music Groups That Gave Society Socially Relevant Music.

Sociology Of Rape.

Sociology Of Religion.

Sociology Of Sexualities.

Sociology of Work and Industry.

Somatotypes Were Associated With Personality And Temperament By Criminologists.

Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act In The United States.

Soul Refers To Psyche, The Self, Or Human Consciousness.


Speciesism and Racism involve Discrimination and Exploitation.

Specific Deterrence.

Specific Land Claims.

Spirit Of Capitalism.

Sponsored Mobility is a method of identifying people at an early age for social advancement.

Spuriousness is the Incorrect Inference of a Causal Relationship.

Sputnik Was The First Earth-orbiting Satellite.

Stalinism refers to the Political System under the leadership of Joseph Stalin.

State Capitalism is a term used to describe Communist Systems.

State Is The Institution With Legitimate Rights To Enforce Laws.

Statistical School Developed A Structural Explanation Of Crime And Social Problems.

Statistically Significant Difference.

Statistics refers to a collection of tests or techniques that are applied to the data or observations.

Status Indian refers to First Nations of Canada.

Status Offense Also Refers To An Offense Such As A Traffic Violation.

Statutes Are Laws Enacted By A Sovereign Law-making Body.

Stereotypes have generalizations like the Female Stereotype who like Romance Novels.

Stigma Is Attached To An Individual With Negative Evaluation.

Sigmata Refers to Physical Signs of the State of Atavism.

Stonewall Inn gave birth to Gay Activism and Gay Rights Movement.

Stonewal Riots occurred at the Stonewall Inn In June 1969.

Stratification Is The Condition Of Being Stratified.


Streaming Is The Assigning Of Students To Distinctive Streams.

Structuralism refers to theorists claim that in the most ordinary of events there is a hidden structure.

Structuralist Approach spans across a Broad Spectrum of Disciplines.

Structural Explanation.

Structural Functionalism.

Structuration involves the reproduction on a daily basis of the structures and institutions of society.

Subcultural Transmission Occurs Through Socialization.

Subculture has been treated as synonymous with the population comprising the subsociety.

Subjectivism Accords Primacy To Subjective Experience As Fundamental.

Sufficiency of Disclosure Requirement Is The Base Of Patent Law.

Sufficient Condition Is A Proposition Whose Truth Assures The Truth Of Another Proposition.

Suffrage is the Right to Vote in Political Matters.

Suicide is the act of killing oneself as a result of depression or desperation.

Summary Offences Are Petty Offenses Or Less Serious Criminal Offence.

Superego is a concept developed by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.

Superstitions Arise When Humans Cannot Explain Superstitious Phenomena.

Superstructure is Central to the Materialist Concept of History.

Supplementary Protection Certificate Is Similar To A Patent.

Supraterritoriality And The Elimination Of Barriers To The Flow Of Goods And Services.

Surplus Value is the value left over After Paying The Costs.

Surplus Is The Excess Of Production Over Resources Used.

Sustainable Development is Economic Activity with Due Consideration Given to Carrying Capacity.

Sweat of the brow doctrine.

Symbolic Analysts Engage In Symbolic Analytical Services.

Symbolic Communication is Demonstrated by the Cars We Drive and the House we Live In.

Symbolic Interactionism Examines Stratification from a Micro-level Perspective.

Syndicalism Advocates Worker's Ownership And Control.

Systemic and empirical approach is a theoretical and methodological framework for the study of culture.

Taboo Is Cultural Prohibition

Target Suitability is Mediated By the Target's Accessibility

Technocracy Is An Eternal Temptation For Technologists

Technophilia Is Contrasted With Technophobia

Technophobia and Technofear arise from Technophobe

Telemedicine Is Patient Monitoring Through Mobile Technology

Terrorism Definition - What is Terrorism? Who is a Terrorist?

Terrorism For National Liberation

Terrorism Related Terms And Common Terms In The Study Of Terrorism

Terrorism - What Is Terrorism? And Who Becomes A Terrorist?

Terrorist Group Typologies Include Religious Fundamentalist and Nationalist-separatist

Terrorist Groups

Terrorist Ideology And Religious Perception

Terrorist rationalization of violence is the moral justification terrorists give for terrorist actions

Textual Analysis Is Used To Understand Social Life

Thanatology is the Scientific Study of Death and Bereavement

Theocracy Is Government By God Through A Priestly Order

Theodor Adorno Was A Member Of Frankfurt School Of Critical Theory

Theory is Analytic Structure Designed To Explain Empirical Observations

The Left And The Right In Politics

Third world countries are those large political communities in the initial stages of development

Thomas Hobbes was a Founder of Modern Political Philosophy

Thorstein Veblen Developed an Economic Sociology of Capitalism

Three-strikes Laws Impose Harsh Sentences On Habitual Offenders

Token Economy is a behavior therapy based on Operant Learning Principles

Tort Is Neglect Of Legally Recognized Duties Of Care To Others

Tory And Toryism

A Tory Is A Member Of The Tory Political Party

Total Institutions are Involved in the Process Of Resocialization

Totalitarianism is an Extreme Version of Authoritarianism

Traditional Knowledge Is Local Or Indigenous Knowledge

Transnational Corporation is also called a Multinational Corporation

Transnationalism Is A Social Phenomenon Grown Out Of Interconnectivity

Transsexual Is Beyond The Boundary Between The Sexes


Triad Is A Chinese Secret Society Of Resistance Fighters

Tribalism occurs where social identification has broken down

True Experiments Are High On Internal Validity

Truman Doctrine Speech Marked A Change In American Foreign Policy

Tudor is a Member of the Royal Family descended from Owen Tudor

Type Errors Are Used To Describe Possible Errors In Statistics

Typification is perceiving the world by means of Types and Typology

Typology Deals with Classes with Common Characteristics

Uberisation Is Like Mcdonaldization And eBayization

Underclass is a term similar to Karl Marx's concept of Lumpenproletariat

Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy

Unilineal Descent means genetically kin to only one progenitor.

Unit Of Analysis And The Individual.

Univariate Analysis Gives Data On One Variable.

Universality is the provision of the benefits of a Welfare State.

Urban Gentrification is the movement of affluent people into a lower-class area.

Urban Sociology Covers Urban Gentrification And Metropolitan Region.

Urbanism, New Urbanism, Everyday Urbanism, and Post-Urbanism.

United States Copyright Law.

Utilitarianism Is The Greatest Possible Satisfaction For The Greatest Number.

Utility Model Laws Are Similar To Those Granted By Patent Laws.

Utterances Are Speech Examined By Conversational Analysis.

Validity is one of two criteria, the other being reliability.

Values are cultural prescriptions of What Is Right And Moral.

Vanity is the undue belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness to others.

Variables Are Terms Central To Quantitative Sociology.

Veblen Effects Are Similar To Snob Effect.

Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for food or clothing.

Verstehen Literally Means Understanding Or Comprehension.

Vertical Integration.

Vertical Social Mobility can be upward or downward social mobility.

Victimization Survey Helps In Calculating Crime Rates.

Victimless Crime And Willing Participants.

Violent Predators Are Violent Sexual Offenders.

Virtual Community Is An Online Community Using Social Networking Services.

Visible Minorities are Non-whites in Canada who make up a Racial Formation.

War Crimes Are Atrocities Against Any Civilian Population.

Welfare State, Equality Of Opportunity, and Equitable Distribution of Wealth.

What Motivates Terrorists? What Motivates Terrorism?

What Are Antitrust laws that limit the market power of any particular firm.

What Is Conflict Theory?

What Is Mercantilism's Principle?

What Is Ransomware? Malicious software that holds a computer system hostage.

White-collar crimes are very intricate and nonviolent in nature.

Whorf-Sapir hypothesis Is Also Called Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

WIPO Copyright Treaty And World Intellectual Property Organization.

WIPO Alternative Domain Name Dispute Resolution Procedures.

WIPO Mediation Rules

Women's Movement is also known as the Feminist Movement.

Women's Liberation Theory Covers The Women's Liberation Movement.

Working Class Culture Is Cultures Created By Working Class People.

Working Class are those who are Employed in Lower Tier Jobs.

Works Made For Hire Is Also Known As Corporate Authorship.

World-Systems Theory was developed by Immanuel Wallerstein.

Xenophobia is irrational hatred of people perceived as foreign.

Xinhai Chinese Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution.

X Theory States That The Average Person Must Be Forced To Work.

Y Theory Assumes that Employees are Self-motivated.

Yankee Cowboy Thesis Relates To American Capitalists.

Yellow Dog Contract Restrains Unionism.

Youthful Offender System Addresses Youth Violence.

Yuppie And The Muppie Likes To Be Part Of The In-Crowd.

Z Theory Was Developed By William Ouchi In Theory Z.

Zaibatsu and Keiretsu.

Zeitgeist Is The Spirit Of The Time Characteristic Of A Period.

Zero-sum Game is Different from Non-zero-sum Game.

Zoning Laws Are Used As Planning Tools.

Cybersecurity Law

History Of IP Indian Trade Mark Act

Copyright Act 1957 Governs Copyright Laws in India

Indian Copyright Law borrowed from the 1956 Copyright Act of UK.

Agreement On TRIPS Lays Down The Requirements That Laws Must Meet.

Best Mode Requirement Complements Sufficiency Of Disclosure Requirement.

Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China.

Clayton Antitrust Act Of 1915.

Copyleft All Wrongs Reserved is defined as copyright licensing.

Copyright Law and the Objective of Copyright is to Promote Ideas.

Copyright laws in Japan. Author's Rights and Neighboring Rights.

Database Rights Are A Form Of Exclusive Right.

Designs Law Protects The Design Element Of Innovative Activity.

Domain Name Disputes.

Domain Name Disputes Case Law.

European Union Copyright Laws can be traced to Berne Convention.

First Sale Doctrine Shields a Reseller from Infringement.

First Line Authorities Deal Directly With The Public.

First sale doctrine and patents.

French copyright Law was Based on the Right Of The Author.

German Copyright Law implemented the EU Copyright Directive.

Hong Kong Copyright Law.

Information Privacy Law.

IP And The Internet.

IP In The Software Industry.

Italian Copyright Law.

Passing Off And Trade Marks Law.

Patentability Is Eligibility For Patent Protection.

Patenting Practices In Different Countries.

Patent Case Law.

Patent Infringement.

Patent Law Treaties.

Patent Law Treaty PLT 2000.

Philippine Copyright Law.

Russian Copyright Law.

Spanish Copyright Law.

Switzerland Copyright Law.

UK Copyright Law.

Trade Secret Case Law.

Trade Secrets Law Protects Confidential Business Information.

Trademark Case Law.

Trademark Dilution Law Protects Trademarks As A Property Right.

Trademark Infringement is a Violation of the Exclusive Rights.

Trade Mark Law Protects Marks that Identify Goods and Services.

Great Sociologists

Adam Smith introduced the theory of absolute advantage

Albert Eberhard Friedrich Schäffle on the problem of incentives in large-scale collectives

Alexander Alexandrovich Zinoviev represented philosophical thought in the Soviet Union

Alfred Reginald figures

Alfred Schutz And Development of Phenomenological Sociology

Alfred Weber

Alger Hiss was indicted for perjury

Alice S Rossi figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Ali Shariati Mazinani

Alva Erskine Belmont and the American women's suffrage movement

Alva Myrdal

Alvin Ward Gouldner Emphasized Working-class Action

Andre Gunder Frank is known for Dependency Theory

Andrew M. Greeley figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Anthony Giddens Enriched Classical Sociological Theory

Antonio Gramsci Unified Social Theory And Political Practice

Arnold Gehlen

Auguste Comte Enriched The Doctrine of Positivism

Bruno Latour

Charles Horton Cooley sought to merge history, philosophy, and social psychology

Charles Lemert has contributed on Social Theory, Culture and Globalization

Charles Spurgeon Johnson

Charles Tilly

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Chester Irving Barnard

Clifford James Geertz

Daniel Bell

Daniel Defert

David Émile Durkheim Defined the Autonomy of Sociology

David Hume is known for his Philosophical Empiricism, Skepticism And Naturalism

Du Bois Web

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl established the school of phenomenology

Edward Franklin Frazier

Edwin Hardin Sutherland

Edvard Alexander Westermarck was the first sociobiologist also studied exogamy and the incest taboo

Emily Greene Balch played a central role in the International Congress of Women

Erich Fromm

Ernest Watson Burgess Helped Found The Chicago School

Erving Goffman Contributed to the Study of Social Interaction

Eugen Ehrlich

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick

Fei Xiaotong

Ferdinand Tönnies

Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Florence Onyebuchi Emecheta

Florian Witold Znaniecki

Frank Tannenbaum And "Dramatization Of Evil"

François Marie Charles Fourier

Friedrich Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto With Karl Marx

Friedrich Nietzsche has been linked to Nazism and Postmodernism

Friedrich Pollock was a member of the Frankfurt School of neo-Marxist theory

Gabriel Tarde

George Berkeley

Georg Simmel

George Herbert Mead Influenced Symbolic Interactionism

George Ritzer and Rationalization of Modern Society and Culture

Georges Eugène Sorel

Gerhard Lenski.

Gustave Le Bon

Herbert Marcuse And Phenomenological Sociology

Herbert José de Sousa And Christmas Without Hunger

Helmuth Plessner was a primary advocate of Philosophical Anthropology

Henri Lefebvre Introduced The Concept Of The Right To The City

Herbert Alexander Simon and Artificial Intelligence

Herbert George Blumer believed that what creates society itself is people engaging in social interaction

Howard Saul Becker Represents the Tradition of Chicago School

Howard Washington Odum Institute for Research in Social Science was established in 1924

Ibn Khaldun's best book was the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena

Ibrahim Müteferrika discussed the heliocentrism of astronomy in detail

Immanuel Kant believed that Reason is the Source of Morality

Immanuel Wallerstein led the emergence of World-Systems Theory

Jacques Derrida, Post-structuralism And Postmodern Philosophy

Jacques Ellul Was A Noted Christian Anarchist

Jaime Luciano Balmes Was A Catholic Apologist

James Quinn Wilson's Book Thinking About Crime And Theory Of Incapacitation

James Samuel Coleman's Foundations of Social Theory influenced sociological theory

Jane Addams

Jean Baudrillard's Works Are Associated With Post-structuralism

Jean-François Lyotard was a Great Promoter of Modernist Art

Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development and Genetic Epistemology

Jeremy Bentham was an Early Advocate of Animal Rights

Jeremy Rifkin's The Third Industrial Revolution

Jessie Shirley Bernard wrote about women's lives since the late 1930s

John Locke was a Philosopher known as the Father of Liberalism

John Montgomery Cooper Founded The Academic Journal Primitive Man

John Maynard Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking

John Rankine Goody was a social anthropologist

Joseph Alois Schumpeter was a sociologist and member of the Socialization Commission in Germany

José Carlos Mariátegui was the Most Influential Socialists of the 20th Century

José Ortega y Gasset's best known work was The Revolt Of The Masses

Judith Pamela Butler is a Philosopher and Gender Theorist

Julieta Castellanos was a Strong Advocate for Police Reform

Jurgen Habermas is one of the exponents of critical theory

Karl Mannheim was one of the Founders of the Sociology of Knowledge

Karl Marx was a Political Revolutionary And A Sociologist

Karl Jung or Carl Gustav Jung

Karl Polanyi was an Economic Historian

Kate Waller Barrett And National Florence Crittenton Mission

Kenneth Duva Burke was awarded the National Medal for Literature

Kingsley Davis Coined The Term Population Explosion

Louis Pierre Althusser Reformulated The Base And Superstructure Model

Louis Wirth is known for his classic essay on Urbanism As A Way Of Life

Marcel Mauss is known for his masterpiece Essai sur le Don or The Gift

Martha Beatrice Webb

Martin Heidegger was Critical of Abstract Theories of Existence

Max Horkheimer was a leader of the Frankfurt School and was famous for his work in critical theory

Max Weber Developed a Coherent Philosophy of Social Science

Nancy Fraser

Niklas Luhmann was a prominent thinker in systems theory

Norbert Elias developed figurational analysis and shaped figurational sociology

Paul Michel Foucault was Associated with Structuralism and Social Anthropology

Peter Ludwig Berger's work in sociology of religion and sociology of knowledge

Peter Michael Blau Specialised In Bureaucracy

Peter Townsend promoted social reform through the Child Poverty Action Group

Philip Zimbardo tried to prove that anyone could become a swaggering guard or a cowering inmate

Pierre Bourdieu Pioneered Terms Such As Cultural Capital

Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf Enriched Class Theory And Role Theory

Rene Descartes: I think, therefore I am

Roland Barthes Is Associated With Post-structuralism

Simone de Beauvoir was a French writer, existentialist, political activist, and feminist

Sigmund Freud Proposed the Existence of an Unconscious Element

Talcott Parsons' starting point is the Theory of Social Action

Travis Warner Hirschi and the Social Control Theory of Crime

Ulrich Beck's Theory Of Interdisciplinary Reflexive Modernization

William Henry Beveridge report served as the basis for Welfare State

William Isaac Thomas Introduced the concept of Definition Of The Situation

Zygmunt Bauman

Medical Tourism In India

Aboriginal Culture And Traditions In Canada

Guru And Guide: Prof Son-Ung Kim
Editor: Rajrathnam V P