Sociology is the science whose object is to interpret the meaning of social action. Sociology gives a causal explanation of the way in which the action proceeds and the effects which it produces. Society is best conceived as the product of interactions between component individuals controlled by a body of traditions and norms.Sociology is the study of Society, Social Interaction, and Social Customs And Traditions. Sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to Social Policy and social welfare. Traditional focus of sociology has been Social Stratification, Social Bond, Social Class, Social Construction Of Gender, Social Mobility, Secularization, Social Movements, and Deviant Behavior.
Action Theory is a sociological perspective that focuses on the individual as a subject. Action theory views social action as something purposively shaped by individuals within a context to which they have given meaning. Action theory approach has its foundations in Max Weber's interpretive theory which claims that it is necessary to know the subjective purpose and intent of the actor before an observer can understand the meaning of social action.
Modernization Theory is a theory of social and economic development, following functionalism or consensus perspective assumptions, that societies need to have harmony among their component parts. Social Control Theory attempts to explain why it is that all of us do not commit crime. Social control theory tries to explain why most people are law-abiding? Social control theory explains the many ways in which social control works in family, schools, work situations, and even in conscience. Social Control ranges from gossip and ridicule to imprisonment and execution.
Social Contract Theory is used to suggest that a group of self-interested and rational individuals came together and formed a contract which created society. Each was willing to give up a little bit of freedom to create social rules that would protect their self-interest.
Women's Liberation Theory and women's rights. Marxist Feminism is a form of feminism which believes that women's oppression is a symptom of oppression. Radical Feminism is recent and differs from traditional Marxism. Socialist Feminism argues for the equality of women within a society that is not dependent upon the exploitation of one group by another, that is, a classless society.
Sociology of terrorism and theories of terrorism. What motivates terrorists? Sociology of terrorism is about terrorist's rationalization of violence using moral justification. Joseph Margolin's argues that "much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives" in one of the many hypotheses of terrorism. Mass-destruction terrorism and WMD use is becoming a huge threat to the world. Syrian official position that Syria does not assist terrorist organizations but it supports national liberation movements leads to the concept of terrorism for "National Liberation". The physiological approach to terrorism suggests the role of the media in promoting the spread of terrorism. What is terrorist's ideology and religious perception? Speaking about terrorism or the violent world of fundamentalism Dr Salman Akhtar, of Harvard Medical School said "there is the deepest dread of total mortality which all human beings live with. The fundamentalist denies total mortality with fantasies. It is simply not going to happen."
Chaos Theory or complexity theory distinguishes the presence of social disorder from order within social disorder. The notion of patterned regularities operating deep within the apparent randomness of dynamic systems challenges the assumptions informing correctional, psychiatric, and/or legal practice.
Game Theory develops general mathematical formulas and algorithms to identify optimal strategies and to predict the outcome of interactions. The Prisoner's Dilemma is a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two individuals might not cooperate, even though it is in their best interests to cooperate. Game theory studies strategic interaction in competitive and cooperative environments.
Social Strain Theory was advanced first by Robert King Merton in 1938, Albert K. Cohen, Richard Cloward, Lloyd Ohlin, Neil Smelser, Robert Agnew, Steven Messner and lately Richard Rosenfeld, have followed with continuous regularity. Robert Merton's theory of crime, anomie is an example of strain theory.
Social Disorganization Theory is about breakdown in social organization. Sociology has approached the study of organizations in a number of ways. Social Organization are patterns of relationships organized to meet some human needs. Social Disorganization Theory is the theory that crime and other deviant behavior is most likely to occur where social institutions are not able to direct and control group of individuals.
Psychological Theories of Crime in Sociology: Assumption of offender deficit: Something is psychologically wrong with the offender. Assumption of discriminating traits: Offenders differ from non-offenders, especially in impulsivity and aggression.
Globalization is marked by the expansion of the size and power of multinational corporations. In economic terms, globalization describes an interdependence of nations around the globe fostered through free trade. The terms, Mcdonaldization, Uberisation and eBayization are now used to refer to globalization. Jan Aart Scholte's globalization.
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