Sociology Index

Sociology is the science whose object is to interpret the meaning of social action. Sociologists explain the ways in which social action takes place and the effects it produces in society. Society is the product of interactions between individuals controlled by social customs and traditions. The focus of sociology has been social stratification, social bond, social class, social construction of gender, social mobility, social movements, and deviant behavior. Careers in sociology offer a satisfying life experience. Action theory views social action as something purposively shaped by individuals within a context to which they have given meaning. Action theory approach has its foundations in Max Weber's interpretive theory which claims that it is necessary to know the subjective purpose and intent of the actor before an observer can understand the meaning of social action. Modernization theory is a theory of social and economic development, following functionalism or consensus perspective assumptions, that societies need to have harmony among their component parts. Social control theory attempts to explain why most people are law-abiding? Social control theory explains the many ways in which social control works in family, schools, work situations, and even in conscience. Social control ranges from gossip and ridicule to imprisonment and execution. Social contract theory is used to suggest that a group of self-interested and rational individuals came together and formed a contract which created society.


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Accounting Is Rationalizations People Provide For Their Actions

Acculturation Is The Adaptation To An Alien Culture

Acephalous society means a society without an head

Achieved Status Is A Position Attained

Action Theory Treats The Individual As An Autonomous Subject

Activism Is Vigorous Action For Social Change And Political Change

Actus Reus And Mens Rea Are Required For Conviction Under Criminal Law

Affirmative Action - Why Affirmative Action Is Needed?

Ageism Is Discrimination Against Seniors Patterned On Sexism And Racism

Agency Relationship - One Party Acts On Behalf Of Another

Ageing Process And The Problems Faced By Old People

Aging And Sociology of The Life Course

Agreement On TRIPS Lays Down The Requirements That Laws Must Meet

Albert Eberhard Friedrich Schäffle figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alexander Alexandrovich Zinoviev figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alfred Reginald figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alfred Schutz And Development of Phenomenological Sociology

Alfred Weber was one among distinguished sociologists

Alger Hiss - McCarthyism And The Hunt For Communists In American Society

Alice S. Rossi figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alienation Reflects Low Integration And High Isolation

Ali Shariati Mazinani figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alterity Occurs Even In Homogeneous Societies

Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically

Altruistic Suicide Is The Act Of Killing Oneself For A Cause

Alva Erskine Belmont figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alva Myrdal figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Alvin Ward Gouldner Emphasized Working-class Action

Amazons Are Members Of A Legendary Nation Of Female Warriors

American Revolution Rejected The British Monarchy To Create The Sovereign United States

Amplification of Deviance or 'Deviancy Amplification Spiral'

Analysing Causes Of Terrorism And Their Impact On Society

Anarchism - Libertarianism Was Often Used As A Synonym For Anarchism

Amazons Are Members Of A Legendary Nation Of Female Warriors

Andre Gunder Frank is known for Dependency Theory

Andrew M. Greeley figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Androgyny Is Combination Of Feminine And Masculine Characteristics

Anomia Is More Related To Occupational Aspiration Than To Occupational Level

Anomic Division Of Labour Is Based On Power And Status

Anomic Suicide Reflects Disillusionment And Disappointment

Anomie Describes The Absence Of Clear Societal Norms And Values

Anthony Giddens Enriched Classical Sociological Theory

Anti-combines Laws Prevent Corporate Combination

Antisocial Personality Disorder Is Also Referred To As Sociopathy

Anti-Semitism is Hostile Attitude to Jews and the Jewish Religion

Antonio Gramsci Unified Social Theory And Political Practice

Apartheid Is A Policy Of Racial Segregation

Apartheid Legislation Defined And Enforced Segregation

Archaeology is not only the hand-maid of history

Architectural Sociology - Functional Spaces and Social Aspects in Architecture

Aristocracy is Government of a State run by its Elite Citizens

Arnold Gehlen figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Articles and Interviews - Film and TV

Ascribed Status Is A Status That Is Automatically Transmitted

Ascription Explains Why Social Stratification Occurs

Assimilation - Voluntary And Involuntary

Assumption of Discriminating Traits, Qualities or Characteristics of a Person

Assumption of Offender Deficit: The view that Offenders against the Law have some Psychological Deficit

Astrosociology - Intersection Between Space Exploration and Humanity

Astroturfing Refers To Faking Popular Opinion

Atavism Is The Tendency To Revert To An Ancestral Type

Atheism in philosophy and philosophical atheism

Attachment Deals With Aspects Of The Social Bond

Audience Segmentation Is All About Understanding The Audience

Audience And Audience Studies

Audio Home Recording Act AHRA.

Auguste Comte Enriched The Doctrine of Positivism

Australian Copyright Law is Based on the British Model

Authoritarianism is concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression

Authority Is The Capacity To Secure Compliance From Others

Absolute Monarchies And Dictatorships Are Modern-Day Forms Of Autocracy

Automation And Automatic Systems Have Gained In Autonomy

Autonomous Economy is IT-driven

Background Knowledge In Ethnomethodology Refers to Commonsense Reasoning

Bandwagon Effect causes people to Ignore Their Own Beliefs

Base: The relationship between superstructure and base is considered to be a dialectical one

Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 and Rights Over Inventions Resulting From Federally Funded Research

Beatles and Money can't buy me Love

Social Behavior Is Behavior Among Two Or More Organisms Within Species

Belief In Conventional Values, Morality, And Law

Berdache Or Two Spirits Status Was Found In First Nation's Cultures

Berlin Wall minimized Cultural Contact between East and West Germany

Best Mode Requirement Complements Sufficiency Of Disclosure Requirement

Bilineal Descent is Both Patrilineal Descent and Matrilineal Descent

Biotechnology And Bioethics

Biotechnology Bibliography

Bivariate Analysis Tests Hypotheses Of Association And Causality

Black Collar Crime

Blog is a shortened version of web-logs or weblogs

Blue Collar Crime

Bob Dylan - The times they are a-changin

Bourgeois Class are associated with Great Britain in 1688 and the French Revolution in 1789

Bracketing Reveals The Underlying Thinking In Social Action

Brave New World

Bride-price Is Pecuniary Transfers Necessary In Marriage Markets

British North America or Canada became a Dominion in the British Commonwealth

Broken Window Theory: Disorder induces more Disorder


Bruno Latour figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Cyberocracy could be a Bureaucracy Changed by Computers

Christian Doctrine Associated With John Calvin

Canadian Copyright Law.

Capital Accumulation is a Dynamic that Motivates the Pursuit of Profit

Capital Is Central To A Capitalist Economic System

State Capitalism, Karaoke Capitalism, Crony Capitalism

Capital Punishment or Death Penalty is the Punishment of Crime by Execution

Sociology As A Career Option

Career Criminal is one whose Criminality is just like a Career.

Career In Intellectual Property Rights Management.

Under Conditions Of Social Stress, Cargo Cults Often Develop As A Movement

Carrying Capacity In Ecology Refers To Sustainable Resource

"Pure People" Versus "Polluted People" lies at the heart of Brutal Caste System

Casting Couch As A Practice Is Illegal In The United States

System Causality, Statistical Causality, Mechanism Causality, and Algorithmic Causality

Causal Analysis Is A Positivist Approach To Criminology

What Chaos Theory Is And What Chaos Theory Is Not

Charles Horton Cooley refused to label himself a sociologist.

Charles Lemert has contributed on Social Theory, Culture and Globalization

Charles Spurgeon Johnson figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Charles Tilly figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Charlotte Perkins Gilman figures among eminent sociologists of the world


Chester Irving Barnard figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Debates about Urban Structure and the Precepts of the Chicago School

Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China

On The World’s Political Stage We Witness Protestors Who Are Called Global Citizens

Civilization Is A Term Used By Archaeologists And Anthropologists

Sociological Approaches To Civil Society Is Tied To Cultural Sociology

Vladimir Lenin Said The State Is A Tool For Class Oppression

Classical Conditioning Is A Basic Form Of Learning

CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY Is The First Formal School Of Criminology

CLASSICAL ECONOMIC THEORY Is The First Modern School Of Economic Thought

Classical Liberalism Is Also Called Laissez-faire Liberalism

Zaibatsu was succeeded by the keiretsu

Classless Society Is A Society Without A Hierarchy Of Classes

Clayton Antitrust Act Of 1915

Clifford James Geertz figures among eminent anthropologists and sociologists

Cliff Richard - WHAT D'YA KNOW, WE GOT A SHOW!

CLOSED-CLASS SOCIETY Is Where Class Location Is Ascribed

CLOVIS CULTURE And Clovis Archaeological Culture

CLUTTERED NEST Is The Phenomenon Of Young Adults Returning Home

COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY Is Also Known As Ethnoscience

COHORTS share a similar experience at a Particular Time

The Origins of the Cold War in Comparative Perspective

We Need A Collaborative Community Based On Loyalty

Studying Collective Behavior is useful in a Society of Mobs and Riots

Class Consciousness Is At The Root Of Collective Identity

Cohesion And Integration Comes From The Homogeneity Of Individuals

Colonialism Is Used Interchangeably With Imperialism

COMMAND ECONOMY is directed by state authorities.

Commonsense Reasoning is also Referred to as Mundane Reasoning

COMMON LAW Derives From Feudal England

Common Law Copyright Doctrine Is The Contention That Copyright Is A Natural Right

Communism Is For Collective Ownership of Resources and Capital

Communitarianism Emphasizes The Social Bond Between The Individual And The Community

Community Psychology Grew Out Of The Community Mental Health Movement

Community Is A Web Of Ties Linking People In Mutual Bonds

Crime Prevention Strategies Focus on the Community Itself

Comparative Cultural Studies

Canada's Real Rulers Are Comprador Elite

Computerized Activism is used by grassroots groups all over the world

Conduct Norms can be Classified as General Conduct Norms and Specific Conduct Norms

Confederalism represents a main form of Inter-governmentalism

CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES or Conflict Theories draw attention to Power Differentials

A Conglomerate is Joined Together by a Corporate Holding Company

An Act Is Criminal When It Offends Defined States Of The Conscience Collective

Consensual Crimes Are Also Referred To As Victimless Crimes

Consensus Perspective, Cooperation Perspective And Conflict Perspective

The Ends Justify The Means

Conservation Movement Includes Preservation Of Biodiversity

Conservatism Is Not The Same As Those Upheld By Political Parties Calling Themselves Conservative

Conspicuous Consumption is Public Display of Discretionary Economic Power


Consumer Culture Is About What We Consume

The Epistemological Roots of Content Analysis lie in Legal Realism

Content Development Is Interchangeable With Content Marketing

CONTEST MOBILITY. Recruitment For Positions Is Seen As A Contest

Continental in US History refers to the Colonies of America

Contradictions Of Capitalism is Associated with Karl Marx

Control Groups Are Used In Controlled Experiments To Curb Bias

CONVENTIONAL CRIMES Are Traditional Illegal Behaviors

Conversational Analysis Is Also Known As Sequential Analysis

COPYLEFT ALL WRONGS RESERVED is defined as copyright licensing.

Copyright Act 1957 Governs Copyright Laws in India

The Objective of Copyright is to Promote Ideas

Copyright laws in Japan. Author's Rights and Neighboring Rights.

Corespective Behavior Avoids Cutthroat Competition

CORPORATE CRIMES Are Committed By Or In A Corporation

Corporate Culture drives the organization and its actions.

Corporate Elite Are The Senior Executives Of Big Corporations

Corporatism Is Historically Associated with Fascism

Corporatocracy is defined as a system that is controlled by corporations

Corrado Gini was one among distinguished sociologists


Close Relationship Between Social Standing And The Educational System

Counter-Veblen Effect. Cheap is good in Micro-economics

Hippies Are A Classic Example Of American Counterculture

Craft Union Brings Together Workers Within The Same Craft

Crime Is The Central Focus Of Criminology

Due Process Model Versus Crime Control Model

Crime Reduction And Community Based Crime Reduction program

Criminal Recidivism Is Repetition Of Criminal Behavior


Critical Theory Was Developed By The Frankfurt School

CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY Is Study Using A Conflict Perspective

Crony capitalism arises when Political Cronyism extends into the Business Domain

Cross Cousin is Maternal Uncle's Child or Paternal Aunt's Child

Cross-cultural Analysis is also known as Comparative Analysis

Cross-Cultural, Inter-Cultural And Multi-Cultural Studies

Cross-sectional Research Is Analogous To One Still Picture

Copyright with Special Copyright Rules for the Crown

Crown Corporation is an Organization Established by the Government

Cults May Arise Spontaneously Around Novel Beliefs And Practices

Culture - Aboriginal Culture And Traditions In Canada

Cultural Capital Can Also Refer To Achieved Status And Ascribed Status

Cultural Construction Is Shaped By Cultural Assumptions

Cultural Ecology is the Interaction between Culture and Environment

Creative Economy, Creative Industries, And Cultural Industries

Frankfurt School And Birmingham Centre For Cultural Studies

Culturally Prescribed Aspirations

Cultural Variation Among Humans In Contrast To Social Anthropology

Cultural Challenges and Cross-cultural Challenges Of A Networked World

CULTURAL COLONIALISM Is The Control Of Other Nations' Values And Perceptions

Culture As An Explanation. What are the alternatives to cultural explanations?

CULTURAL GENOCIDE Is The Systematic Destruction Of A Culture

Cultural Power Dominating Other National Cultures

The Concept Of Cultural Production And Cultural Intermediaries

The Cultural Revolution Marked The Return Of Mao Zedong

Culture in Mind: Toward a Sociology of Culture and Cognition

Culture and Cultural Studies Journals

Culture And Cultural Studies Are Conceived In Many Ways

Culture Shock occurs when there is Disruption of Normal Assumptions about Values and Behavior

Culture In Society Is Made Of Shared Knowledge, Beliefs And Values



What is Cyber Community? And what is Virtual Community?

Cybercrimes are Identity Theft, Phishing, and Stealing Personal Information

Cyberculture appropriates from other Subcultures: Cyberpunks and Transhumanism

Cyberocracy Is Bureaucracy Driven By Information Technology

FTC’s Section 5 Authority, and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

Cybersociology Covers Cybercummunity In Cyberspace

Restorative Cyborg and the Enhanced Cyborg

Daniel Bell was one among distinguished sociologists

Daniel Defert was one among distinguished sociologists

Dark Figure Of Crime Remains Uncounted In The Official Statistics

Darwinism also means "Those Most Adaptable to Change have a Better Chance"

Database Rights Are A Form Of Exclusive Right

David Émile Durkheim Defined the Autonomy of Sociology

DECONSTRUCTION Is A Concept Central To Postmodernism

By "Ecology Movement" Naess means a cosmology or worldview.

Deficit Is The Gap Between Revenues And Expenditures

Defining The Situation Is The Idea Of Framing A Situation

Social Control and the Myths of Deinstitutionalization

Demand Mobility In Sociology? Mobility On Demand In Transportation?

Demand Characteristics cannot be Eliminated. Demand Characteristics can be Studied

Democide Covers Murder Of Any Number Of Persons By Any Government

The term 'Democracy' in Greek is Literally 'Rule By The People'

Democratic Deficit has Increased Because of Globalization and the Growth of MNCs

The Industrial Revolution and the Demographic Transition

DEMOGRAPHY is the Study of Populations, its Size and Structure.

Dependency Ratio Shows Population Depending On Those Working

DEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT is a Central Concept of Dependency Theory

Dependent Variables Represent The Output Whose Variation Is Being Studied

A Mean, Median Or Mode Is A Descriptive Statistic

Designs Law Protects The Design Element Of Innovative Activity

Deskilling White-collar Work And Upskilling Blue-collar Work

Determinism Is Contrasted With Free Will

Developing An IP Strategy To Sustain Competitive Advantage

Developmental Crime Prevention Is An Early Intervention Approach

What Is Deviant Behavior? What Is Deviance?

Is Performance Inherently Dialectical? Or Is Dialectics Inherently Performative?

Dictatorship Is Generally Contrasted With Democracy

Differential Association Means That Different Situations Lead To Different Learning

Diffuseness Of Roles And Diffuseness Of Goals

Digital Millennium Copyright Act

Digital Divide can impact a growing Digital Economy

Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment are different


Trends in Discourse Analysis identify the intersection of language and social structure

Setting A Requirement Without Justification Leads To Discrimination

Disenfranchised Means To Be Without The Right To Vote

The Term Dissociation is used in a Psychological Way or Sociological Way

Distributive Justice and Retributive Justice

Division Of Labour For A Qualitative Increase In Productivity

Documentary Method Of Interpretation Is Used In Commonsense Reasoning


Domain Name Disputes Case Law

Ruling Group And Ruling Ideas Give Rise To Dominant Ideology

Don McLean Is Famous For His 1971 Album American Pie

Controls, Double Blind Procedure, And Randomized Testing Reduce Error

Double Burden, Double Day, Double Duty, And Second Shift

DOUBLE STANDARDS Refers To Different Norms Of Sexual Morality

Dowry is Transfer of Wealth from the Bride's Family

World is Conceived As A Stage In Dramaturgical Model

Priority To Values And Practices Protecting The Rights Of Offenders

Two companies comprising a duopoly control the entire market

Du Bois figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Hotel California Was Interpretation Of High Life In LA

Ebayization is like Mcdonaldisation and Globalization

Ecofeminism And Ecofeminist Ideas In The Environmental Movement

ECOLOGICAL FALLACY is the error made in reasoning about differing Units of Analysis

Relationships at the Ecological Level Do Not Necessarily Hold at the Level of the Individual

Ecology is the Study of Living Beings' Relationships and World

Economic Sociology is one of the most progressive fields of Sociology Today

Marx's views were Unidimensional in Regard to Economic Determinism

Economic Mobility Is Measured By Movement In Household Income

Educational Inequality Between White Students and Minority Students Continues to Perpetuate Inequality

Edwin Hardin Sutherland was one among distinguished sociologists

EFFECTIVE GUARDIANSHIP is Routine Activities Approach To Crime

Egalitarianism Considers All People Equal With Equal Rights

Ego is the Outcome of the Individual's Struggle to Adapt their Basic Drives to the Control of Society

EGOISTIC SUICIDE Is Occurs Due To Lack Of Social Integration

Eileen Vartan Barker figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Eldred v. Ashcroft And the Constitutionality of the Sonny Bono CTEA

The Influence of Anxiety on Electrodermal Activity and Responses to Distractors

Electronic Civil Disobedience and Hacktivism are Modern Phenomena

Embedded Technology. 98% of microprocessors are used in Embedded Systems

The Opposite Of Embourgeoisement Would Be Class Consciousness

Emigration refers to Migration out of a Nation

Erich Fromm was one among distinguished sociologists

Emotional Labor Fulfills The Emotional Requirements Of A Job

Empirical Evidence Refers To Objective Evidence

Employment Equity Implies Proportionate Hiring Of Various Groups

EMPTY NESTERS are Parents whose Children have Matured and Moved

ENCULTURATION is the process by which people acquire values and norms of an alien culture

Endogamy by Social Class is also known as Social Endogamy or Social Homogamy

ENLIGHTENMENT PROJECT Is Apparent In Some Of The Works Of Karl Marx

Conservation Movement and the establishment of Hot Springs National Park in 1832

Epidemiology is a term Used Largely in Medical Sociology

Epistemology Deals with the Grounds and Validity of Knowledge

EQUALITY OF CONDITION Is Rare In Complex Societies

Equality Of opportunity In Individual's Wealth, Status and Power

Equality of Outcome is Contrasted with Equality of Opportunity

Erich Fromm was one among distinguished sociologists

Erving Goffman Contributed to the Study of Social Interaction

Esteem Is Social Status Independent Of Income, Wealth Or Power


Ethnocentrism Is Assumption of Superiority Of One's Own Group

Enthnography Means Learning From People

Mundane Reasoning, Membership Categorization, and Conversational Analysis

ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS Encourage or Cause a Particular Outcome

Eugenics means good genes and selective breeding.

Eugen Ehrlich figures among eminent sociologists of the world

European Union Copyright Laws can be traced to Berne Convention.

Euthanasia Is Doctor-Assisted Suicide

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Evolutionary Psychology focuses primarily on Questions of "Why?"

EXCEPTIONAL STATE Relies on the Coercive Power of the State

EXCHANGE VALUE is Theoretical Value of any Commodity Exchanged

Executive Disengagement, Engagement, And Over-Engagement

Doctrine of Exhaustion Of Rights as explained by the European Commission

Existentialism Posits That Humans Find Themselves In A Existing World

Exogamy Is The Custom Of Seeking A Mate Outside Kinship Group

Experimental Group Receives The Actual Drug In A Study

Exponential Growth Is Growth With A Geometric Progression

External Validity Is Confirmation Of Research Results In The Real World

Extraversion is Associated with Sociability, Impulsiveness and Aggression

Fair use is based on free speech rights provided by the First Amendment

False Negative Is Wrongly Identifying Someone As Non-dangerous

Sometimes called a False Alarm or False Positive Error

All Claims or Assertions must be Open to being Proven False

FAMILISM refers to Core Values which emphasize Family As A Unit

Fascism is not the same as Dictatorship or a Military Dictatorship

Fashion And Consumer Culture Is An Emerging Theory

Fashion Culture. What is fashion culture?

Fatalistic Hopeless Situation Calling For Fatalistic Suicide As A Solution

Fault Trees And Fault Tree Analysis For Performing Reliability Analysis

Fecundity refers to a Woman's Potential to Bear Children

FEDERALISM ASYMMETRICAL Is Federal System Without Same Powers

IN CENTRIPETAL FEDERALISM Power is dispersed from the Centre

Fei Xiaotong figures among eminent sociologists of the world.

Feminism Is A Diverse Political And Intellectual Movement

What is Feminization of Poverty?

A Feral Child Is Raised And Protected From Infancy By Animals

Ferdinand Tönnies figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Fernando Henrique Cardoso figures among eminent sociologists

Fertility Rate is the number of children born in Fertile Years

In the information age, you don't teach philosophy as they did after feudalism

Music, Art, Film and TV Journals.

First Sale Doctrine Shields a Reseller from Infringement

First Line Authorities Deal Directly With The Public

First sale doctrine and patents.

Fiscal Crisis refers to a where Government Expenditures Exceed Government Revenues

Monetary policy is part of the Fiscal Policy

Flat Tax Contrasts With Progressive Taxation

Florence Onyebuchi Emecheta figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Florian Witold Znaniecki figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Folk Society Is A Society With Little Complexity

Forces of Production is the Essential Components of the Economic System

Fordism refers to the System of Mass Production or Assembly Line

World is ruled by the system of government called Corporatocracy and Cyberocracy

Frank Tannenbaum. "Dramatization Of Evil"

Mary Shelley combined science and the supernatural to write Frankenstein

Frankfurt School Examined Culture as a Lived Experience

François Marie Charles Fourier figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Free Trade Zones Are Meant To Facilitate Cross Border Trade

Freelance Economy is also known as the Gig Economy

Free Market Economics is Synonymous with Laissez-faire Economy

French Revolution brought the ideas of Liberty, Equality and Democracy

The French copyright Law was Based on the Right Of The Author

FREUDIAN SLIP is the Unintentional Slip of the Tongue

Friedman Doctrine Views Shareholders As Engine Of The Organization

Friedrich Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto With Karl Marx

Friedrich Nietzsche has been linked to Nazism and Postmodernism

Functionalism Is Often Referred To As Consensus Theory

Functionalist Expanation Perspective Offers Explanation About Society And Human Behavior

Gabriel Tarde figures among eminent sociologists of the world

GAME THEORY Develops Formulas To Identify Optimal Strategies

Garth Brooks Co-wrote The Song 'We Shall Be Free'

Gemeinschaft Society And Gesellschaft Society

"I do not wish women to have power over men; but over themselves" Mary Wollstonecraft

Gender Roles Are Social Roles Ascribed On The Basis Of Sex

Everyone Experiences Some Degree Of Gender Socialization And The Power Differentials

Gender Gap In Pay Is An Expression Of The Generally Devalued Social Status Of Women

Nonbinary vs. gender non-conforming vs. gender-variant

Gender Inequality Emerged out of Skewed Perceptions and Social Constructions

Generalized Other is a Concept of Continuing Usefulness to Development Psychologists

Law Enforcement Influences Behavior Through General Deterrence And Specific Deterrence

Abandoned trademarks are also Genericized Trademarks and become Generic Terms

Genocide is systematic killing of an entire ethnic community

Geographical Indication Is Used To Identify Goods From A Particular Place

Georg Simmel Pictured Society As A Web Of Peoples's Interactions

George Herbert Mead Influenced Symbolic Interactionism

George Ritzer. Rationalization of Modern Society and Culture

Georges Eugène Sorel figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Gerhard Lenski figures among eminent sociologists of the world

German Copyright Law implemented the EU Copyright Directive.

GERONTOCRACY is the Rule by Elders

Geropsychologists Are At The Forefront Of Research On Questions Related To Health And Aging

Giffen Goods Violate The Basic Law Of Demand In Economics

THE GIFT is the title of Marcel Mauss' 1925 Essay

Gig Economy is also known as the Freelance Economy

Lorenz Curve provides a fuller grasp of how the Gini coefficient is Determined

Glass Ceiling is the invisible hypothetical barrier faced by women

Globalization Describes An Interdependence Of Nations

Metamorphosis or Alterations of Geo-political Alignments And Globalization's Challenges

GOODS PRODUCING ECONOMY Is Contrasted With Service Economy

Good Girls Like Bad Boys



The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change

Green Revolution refers to Rise in Agricultural Productivity

GROSS COUNTS OF CRIME Makes No Distinction In Crime Categories

Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Income

Grounded Theory has been derived through Inductive Reasoning

Guerrilla Warfare vs Terrorism.

Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon figures among eminent sociologists

Hactivism is seen as Shadowy due to its Anonymity

Harm Reduction Is About Harm Minimization

Harold Garfinkel Established and Developed Ethnomethodology in Sociology

Harriet Martineau Was The First Woman Sociologist

Harry Braverman was involved in American Trotskyist Movement

Hawthorne Effect is an increase in Worker Productivity at GE

Healthy Health Spas Passed On To Health And Medical Tourism In Russia

Health Tourism in Saudi Arabia

Hegemony is used in Discussion of a Patriarchal Society or a Colonial Society

Herbert Marcuse And Phenomenological Sociology

Heritability is the Extent to Which a Characteristic of a Living Organism is Genetically Determined

Heterogamy Is A Marriage Between People Who Are Culturally Different

Heterophily Is Noticed In Successful Organizations

Heuristic Device Is Used For Thinking About Social Phenomena

Hidden Curriculum is the Norms and Values Indirectly Conveyed

Hierarchy is the Structuring of Social Status and Role within an Organization or Society

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a Theory in Psychology

Historical Sociology Bibliography.

What are the main routes of development of Historical Sociology?

Historical Materialism is the Central Concept of Social Analysis

History of Indian Trade Mark Act.

HOMOGAMY is only a Descriptive Concept and not based on Rules

Birds of the Same Feather Flock Together

Homophobia And Hate Speech Threaten Democracy And Human Rights

Hong Kong Copyright Law

Honor killings And Honor Crimes In A Patriarchal Society

HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION Is Sectoral Concentration

HORIZONTAL SOCIAL MOBILITY is the transition on the same level.

Howard Saul Becker Represents the Tradition of Chicago School

Human Ecology is the relationship between Humans and their Environment

Human rights are protected as natural and legal rights in international law

Humanism asserts the central importance of human life.

Human Capital Is The Capabilities That Individuals Contribute

Wealth Of A Nation Is Vested In Its People

HUNTER-GATHERER SOCIETY is the Earliest Form of Human Society

Hutterites are an Anabaptist group led by Joseph Hutter

States Are Not Decision Makers, States Are Decision Takers

Development of Terroristic, or Potentially Terroristic, Ideologies, Beliefs and Life-styles

A Hypothesis Requires Researcher To Either Confirm Or Disprove It


We can compare Mead's "I" and "me" with Sartre's "choice" and "the situation"

Ibn Khaldun figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Id Is The Unconscious Drives And Psychic Energies Of Humans

Idealism Asserts the Primacy of Consciousness as the Origin and Prerequisite of Material Phenomena

Ideal Type is an Abstract Classic Model of Social Phenomenon

Idea-Expression Dichotomy Or Idea-Expression Divide

Identity Crisis, Identity Cohesion, And Role Confusion

Identity Poltics The Central Aspect Of Postmodern Politics

Ideographic Explanations Are Explanations Of Specific Events

IDEOLOGICAL HEGEMONY is a system of Thought Control

Ideology is the Imaginary Relation to the Real Conditions of Existence

Immanuel Kant believed that Reason is the Source of Morality

Immanuel Wallerstein led the emergence of World-Systems Theory

Immigration is the Movement of Peoples into a Country

Imperialism is the domination by one country over Others.

INCAPACITATION is Punishing people for what they MIGHT DO

Incidence Is A Contrasting Term To Prevalence

The less equal the distribution, the higher income inequality is

Being Thin Is Inconspicuous Consumption That Distinguishes The Rich

Something which is an Independent Variable at one time can be a Dependent Variable at another

Sociology Interprets The Meaning Of Social Action

There Is No Way To Avoid Indexicality, Since Talk About Context Itself Is Also Indexical

Socioeconomic Status is Difficult to Measure and other Indicators like Income or Education are Used

Indian Copyright Law borrowed from the 1956 Copyright Act of UK

Indictable Offense is the Opposite of Summary Offense

Indigenous Peoples Are People Inhabiting A Land Before Colonization

INDIVIDUAL PATHOLOGY Is Biological Or Psychological Traits

Individualism Upholds Choice And Personal Freedom

Inductive Reasoning Vs Deductive Reasoning

Industrialization Refers To Mass Manufacturing

Industrial Relations Is Workplace Relationships Between Workers And Management

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Refers To Profound Technological Changes

INEQUALITY OF CONDITION is a Characteristic of all Complex Societies

Inequality of Opportunity is Pervasive in the Developing World

Inequality Of Outcome And Inequality Of Condition Are Both Controversial Political Concepts

Inference Is The Process Of Moving From An Indicator To Conclusion

Imposing Inferiorized Identity On A Group

Informal Economy Is Underground Economy, or the Hidden Economy

Information Privacy Law Is The Most Debated Topic

"Information Economy" "Information Age" and "Information Society"

Infrastructure Is The Services And Facilities Necessary For An Economy


Instructional Design Model

Instrumentalist Marxism is the Role of State from Marxist Perspective

Insurgent And Insurgency. Insurgent Movements Include Reformist

Intellectual Property Rights Case Law

Intellectual Property Laws Protect Works of the Intellect

Intellectual Property Management

The Idea of a Two-way Effect is Essential in the Concept of Interaction

Interest Group Politics From a Comparative Perspective

The Reasons For Intergenerational Mobility Over Time

Internal Validity Is Criteria Against Which Results Are Judged

Internet Law or CyberLaw involves international jurisdictions.

Internment is Segregation and Confinement of Suspicious Persons

The Interpretive Theory is also called “interpretative approach” or “theory of sense.”

Max Weber Was The Main Influence On The Interpretivist Tradition In Sociology

INTERSUBJECTIVITY helps us relate one situation to another

INVISIBLE HAND OF THE MARKET Is Associated With Adam Smith

State-Sponsored Terrorism

Involvement Is The Degree To Which An Individual Is Active

Intellectual Property Related To Internet

Intellectual Property Rights are the Foundation of the Software Industry

The original German term is Stahlhartes Gehäuse which means Steel-hard Casing

"Never fear, The iron law of oligarchy always obtains" James Madison, US President

Republic of Venice And Italian Copyright Law

Jane Addams figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Jan Aart Scholte's Definitions Of Globalization

Jean Baudrillard's Works Are Associated With Post-structuralism

Robert Louis Stevenson's 'Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde'

Jeremy Bentham was an Early Advocate of Animal Rights

Jim Crow Laws Worked Against Blacks And Jane Crow Laws Worked Against Women

All the wealth you make is taken by exploiting parasites - Joe Hill

For Johnny Cash, black stage attire was a Symbol of Rebellion

"Imagine" "All You Need Is Love" read together are John Lennon's Anthem

Judeo-Christian Ethics Has Been Part Of American Politics, Law And Morals

Jurgen Habermas is one of the exponents of critical theory.

Juristic Personality, Juridical Personality, Artificial Personality And Legal Entity

JUVENILIZATION OF POVERTY Is Increase In Poverty Among Children

Kakistocracy means Government by the Worst People

Karaoke Capitalism refers to concepts such as Benchmarking.

Karl Marx was a Political Revolutionary And A Sociologist

Karl Jung or Carl Gustav Jung

Karl Polanyi was an Economic Historian

Keynesian Economics is the Economic Theory of John Maynard Keynes


KINSHIP STRUCTURE defines central organizational principle of Traditional Societies

What is the Knowledge Economy? What is the Knowledge Capital?

LABELING THEORY is closely related to Social-construction of Reality

LABOR THEORY OF VALUE is generally associated with Marxist Economics

Primary Labor Market And Secondary Labor Market

Laissez Faire Is An Injunction Against Government Interference

Lateral integration Is An Alternative Term For Horizontal Integration

Law Is Defined As Body Of Rules That Are Formally Enacted

Left Realism Can Be Contrasted With Left Idealism

Left-libertarianism Can Imply Egalitarian Redistribution

LEGITIMATION CRISIS Occurs When Government Is Unable To Govern

Communism = Soviet Power + Electrification Of The Whole Country

Some Statistical Tests Require Particular Levels Of Measurement

Liberal Feminism Primarily Focuses On Women's Ability

Liberalism Wagers That A State Can Be Strong But Constrained

Libertarianism Implies What Are Commonly Considered Left-wing Views

LIFESTYLE EXPOSURE THEORY is a theory of victimization

LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH Is A Series Of Cross-sectional Investigations

LONGITUDINAL STUDIES Measure Relationships Between Variables Over Time

LOOKING GLASS SELF Was A Formulation Of Symbolic Interactionism

Lorenz Curve Was Developed To Describe The Extent Of Inequality

Louis Pierre Althusser Reformulated The Base And Superstructure Model

Louis Wirth is known for his classic essay on 'Urbanism as a Way of Life'

People Having Low Class Culture Transmit Lower Values To Children

Luddism Is Intense Dislike Of Or Opposition To Increased Industrialization

Lumpenproletariat Are Unemployable People Who Make No Positive Contribution

Machismo Is The Quality Of Being Macho and Also Masculine Pride

MACRO-PERSPECTIVE is a Way of seeing Society as a Unified Whole

Mafia Is A Term Originally Used To Identify Ethnic Sicilian Crime Groups

Beliefs And Practices Which Are Not Verifiable

Majority Group Refers To A Group in Power

Rate of increase of the population tends to be out of proportion to the increase in means of subsistence

Managerial Revolution Brought Greater Harmony Between Workers And Executives


The Market Economy is a Peal Phenomenon with Economic and Political Advantages

Royal Commission of Inquiry to Investigate the conviction of Donald Marshall Jr.

Martha Beatrice Webb figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Martin Heidegger was Critical of Abstract Theories of Existence

Marxism Is The Ideas And Theories Associated With Karl Marx

Charles Robert Darwin and Karl Heinrich Marx

According to Marxist Feminism Theory Socialism Should Replace Capitalism

Masculine females demonstrate features of the masculine gender

Masculinization is a term applied to female criminality.

Mask Work is a Two or Three-dimensional Layout of an Integrated Circuit

Mass Communication And Mass Society

Mass Destruction, Terrorism, And WMD

Mass Communication, Mass Society And Mass Media

Mass culture was boosted by modern communications and electronic media

Mass Society Refers To A Society With A Mass Culture

MASTER STATUS Overrides Other Status In Importance

Philosophical Physicalism Evolved From Materialism

Matriarchy is a Society in which Women Possess Authority

Matrilineal Descent Is A Form Of Unilineal Descent That Follows A Female Line

MATRILINEAL SOCIETIES Trace Descent Through Mothers

Matrilocality Refers To Matrilocal Residenc

Matrimony And Patrimony Are A Right, A Status Or Tangible Asset Inherited

Maturational Reform Is Observed When Crime Decreases As People Age

Matza's Notion Of Drift is the Unintentional Crime among the Youth

Max Weber Developed a Coherent Philosophy of Social Science

Deterring Speech: When Is It McCarthyism?

McDonaldization commonly used to refer to globalization

Mcjob and McWorld Are Concepts Related To The Analysis Of Corporate Culture

McWorld is a concept developed by Benjamin Barber.

'Me' Refers To Self That Is Aware Of The Expectations Of Others

Mean is commonly called an Average

Subject A Person To A Means Test And Assess A Grant By A Means Test

HOW IS CRIME MEASURED? UCR and NCVS. Is this measurement reliable?

Mechanical solidarity Is Found in Traditional And Small Scale Societies

Median Is A Measure Of Data At The Ratio Levels Of Measurement

Medical Tourism In India

Medical Tourism In Malaysia

Medical Tourism In Philippines

Medical Tourism In Singapore

Medical Tourism In Thailand.

What is Medical Tourism? What is Health Tourism?

Medieval Period is known as the Middle Ages or the Dark Ages

MEDIUM has more influence on society than the content or THE MESSAGE

Member Is A Central Term In Ethnomethodological Theory

MEMBERSHIP CATEGORIZATION - Perceive People And Explain Actions

Mens Rea Means Criminal Intent

The Importance To Any Nation Of Maintaining A Favorable Balance Of International Trade

Meritocracy is Rule by Those Chosen on the Principle of Merit

The Percentage of Metanarrative Clauses in a Story Increases with Age

META-ANALYSIS Is Analyses Of A Collection Of Research Results

Method Is The Instrument One Uses To Measure Crime, Height, or Weight


METHODOLOGICAL INDIVIDUALISM is the hallmark of positivism

Methodology is a body of Methods, Rules, and Postulates

Metropolis-Hinterland Thesis Or Centre-Periphery Thesi

Micro perspective is about a person and the others

Micro and Macro Sociology.

MIDDLE CLASS Is The Petite Bourgeoisie

Military Sociology is the Study of the Military from a Sociological Perspective

In Military Dictatorship Political Power Resides With Military

Millennium is a Period of One Thousand Years or a Thousandth Anniversary

The Minister Is Answerable To Parliament

Minority Group is a Group which is on the Margins of Power or Status

Modern Minority Problems And The Nation-state Concept

Miscegenation Is Interbreeding Of Different Racial Groups

"Misogyny is a Cultural Attitude of Hatred for Females because they are Female"

Mobility may be Inter-generational or Intra-generational

Karl Pearson uses the term mode interchangeably with maximum-ordinate

Modeling Is Learning As A Result Of Watching And Imitating

Why do successful models commit suicide?

Modernization Theory is about social and economic development.

Historical Modes Of Production Includes Hunter-gatherer Society

Monarchy Is Rule By One Person, Either The King Or The Queen

Monetarism is Closely Associated with Neo-conservatism

Gold Standard Monetary Policy was used Across the World prior to 1971

The Term Monogamy is used to Specifically Refer to Marital Monogamy

Monopoly is Characterized by a Lack of Economic Competition

MONOZYGOTIC TWINS Are Commonly Known As Identical Twins

Many Characterize The Montreal Massacre As An Anti-feminist Attack

Moral panic is a panic or overreaction to forms of Deviance

Moral Rights are Distinct from any Economic Rights Tied to Copyright

Investigating How Moral Reasoning Emerges And Develops As The Individual Matures

Moral Economy Offers An Antithesis To The Rational Choice Imperatives


MORAL PLURALISM is also known as Ethical Pluralism or Value Pluralism

Moral Rhetoric Is Used Justify Unfairness, or Exploitation, or Moral Failing

MOTIVATED OFFENDERS Are Ready And Motivated To Engage In Deviant Acts

A mulatto Is An Individual With Mixed Black And White Heritage

Multiculturalism Is The Acceptance Of Various Cultural Divisions


Multivariate Analysis Is A Form Of Quantitative Analysis

Commonsense Reasoning Is Also Referred To As Mundane Reasoning

Music Groups That Gave Society Socially Relevant Music

Music Articles

MUTUAL CONVERSION To Deviant Behavior Is Achieved Interactively

MYSTIFICATION Is The Masking Of Central Aspects Of Society

Myth Refers To A Narrative Of Collective Wisdom Of A Society

Nature-centered Approach Of Mythosociology

Nancy Fraser figures among eminent sociologists of the world

Narcissism is not the same as Egocentrism

Nation is similar to Society and Humans are divided into Nations

Nationalism is an Ideology and Movement that promotes the interests of a Particular Nation

NATIONALIZATION Is The Public Ownership Of Economic Resources

Indian Act in 1876 Legally Confirmed Native Indians as a Racial Formation

Natural Attitude Lets people to carry out daily activities with Little Forethought

Naxalism And Maoism Are Movements Meant To Tackle Inequality

Nazism is the Political Dotrine of the National Socialist Party of Germany

Necessary Condition is one that must be Satisfied for the Statement to be True

Negotiation Of Criminal Status Refers To Defining Criminality

Liberalism is a Political Theory, Neoliberalism is an Economic Concept

Neocolonialism Is A Term Used By Post-colonial Critics

NEOLOCAL RESIDENCE is new residence independent of the couple's parents.

Neoconservatism is a Robust Strain in American Intellectual Life and American Politics

Netherlands Copyright Law (Auteursrecht, Authors Rights)

NET WIDENING Is A Term Used Within Critical Criminology

Royal New France or The French North American Empire

New Deal. Franklin D. Roosevelt: I pledge you, I pledge myself.

Nomothetic Means Of Or Pertaining To The Study Of General Laws

Norbert Elias developed figurational analysis and shaped figurational sociology

Norms Are Culturally Established Rules For Social Behaviour

NOTHING WORKS is used by Those Opposed to Rehabilitation

Null hypothesis is a hypothesis of no difference or of no association between variables.

Trials Of Former Nazi Leaders For War Crimes, Crimes Against Peace, And Crimes Against Humanity

A Statement Can Be Objective As Opposed To The Scientist Being Objective

OCCUPATIONAL DISTANCE is the Distance between One Occupation and Another

OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE is division of work force engaged in economic activities

The Distinction Between Occupational Crime And Organizational Crime Is Subtle

Oligarchy Is A Social System Ruled By Few People

Oligopoly is where a Few Companies Own the Production of a Good

One Big Union movement Supported The Entire Industries Model Over The Craft Unions Model

ONE-PERCENTER. American Motorcycle Gypsy Tour on July 4, 1947.

OPEN-CLASS IDEOLOGY Is A Component Part Of Liberal Ideology

Operant Conditioning. Behavior shaped by Reinforcement, or by Punishment

Measurement Of A Phenomenon That Is Not Directly Measurable

The features of a operational definition vary depending on the study design

Opportunity Structure the way the Society is Structured For Opportunity

Survival of Society Depends on Organic Solidarity or Reliance on Each Other


Concept of Organizational Culture is a way to Understand Human Systems

Organized Crime Is An Enterprise Engaging In Illegal Activities


Panel Study Is A Form Of Longitudinal Research

Pan-Indianism is one of the final stages of progressive acculturation

A Paradigm is a Set Of Concepts or Thought Patterns

Paradigm Shift Occurs When Sets Of Assumptions Change Over Time

The Distinction between Cross Cousins and Parallel Cousins is Important

Parallel Cousins Are Offspring Of Siblings Of The Same Sex

Paramount Chieftainship Is The Highest Level Traditional Chieftainship

Pareto Analysis Uses The Pareto Principle Known As The "80/20 Rule"

IN PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH the exploited groups are fully involved

Passing Off And Trade Marks Law

Patentability Is Eligibility For Patent Protection

Patenting Practices In Different Countries

Patent Case Law

Patent Infringement May Be Direct, Indirect, Contributory, Or Induced

Patent Law Protects Original Inventions And Processes

Patent Law Treaties And A world Patent System Is Not Good For All Countries

Patent Law Treaty PLT 2000

The concept of patriarchy impoverishes analysis of gender and class

PATRILINEAL DESCENT Is Reckoned Through Blood Links Of Males


Patrimony And Matrimony Are A Right, A Status Or Tangible Asset Inherited

Pattern Variables Are Dichotomies Developed By Talcott Parsons

Paul Michel Foucault was Associated with Structuralism and Social Anthropology

Pay equity refers to Elimination of Pay Differentials

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Penitentiary And Jail, Prison, And Correction Facilities Are Different

Penology is the Study of Treatment and Punishment of Offenders

Socialization Helps in the Process of Personality Formation

Per Capita Means For Each Head, or Per Individual

Peter Ludwig Berger's work in sociology of religion and sociology of knowledge

Peter Michael Blau Specialised In Bureaucracy

Peter Townsend. Child Poverty Action Group

Pete Seeger And Protest Music Singing Together For Social Change

Petite Bourgeoisie Can Work By Herself With The Tools Of The Trade She Has Acquired

Phenomenological Sociology and Ethnomethodology Concentrate on Implicit Assumptions

Philippine Copyright Law

Stanford Prison Experiment And Broken-window Theory

Physical Anthropology is the Science of Evolution And Ecology

The Role Of The Media In Promoting The Spread Of Terrorism

Pierre Bourdieu Pioneered Terms Such As Cultural Capital

Piltdown Man is a great Science Hoax of the 20th Century

PINK COLLAR CRIMES Are Committed By Women With Less Power

Pink Floyd Music Is A Commentary On Social Conditions, War And Politics

PINK COLLAR is term to distinguish jobs from white collar jobs.


Who may apply for Plant Variety Protection?

The United States is a Classic Example of Genuine Cultural Pluralism

Plutocracy Is Rule By Wealthy People

Social media could play a role in encouraging social class polarization

Police Attitude towards the use of discretionary powers where END JUSTIFIES MEANS

Polish copyright law complies with legislation in European Union

Privatized Political Crime And Institutionalized Political Crime

Political Socialization is a Foundational Aspect of Political Consciousness Development

Political Sociology is the Study of Socio-Political Phenomena

Mahatma Gandhi Was One Of The Most Influential Political Activists

Political Capital Is Built On Social Capital And Human Capital

Political Culture includes Political Ideals and the Operating Norms of a Polity

POLITICAL POLICING Is The Policing Of Community Acts

Politics refers to Processes that Involve the Exercise of Power, Status or Influence

Polity Shapes The Way The Society Is Governed

Polyandry is Polygamy in which a Woman has two or more Husbands

Polygamy is having more than one spouse living at the same time.

Polyandry is Contrasted with Polygyny

What Is Popular Culture And Pop Culture?

The study of populations, their structure and transformations

Population Index includes All Members of a given Class or Set

The slogan “panem et circenses” or populistainment dates back to Antiquity

Positive Deviance Includes Acts Like Whistle-blowing

Sanction Is A Positive Or Negative Response To Behavior

POSITIVE SCHOOL is the First Scientific School of Criminology

POSITIVISM Places Science In A Privileged Position

Post-critical Criminology

Postmodern is movements in modernism and modern assumptions.

Postmodernism rejects boundaries between high and low forms of art.

Postmodernism Bibliography.

Poststructuralism Is A Response To Structuralism

Post-industrial Thesis Tells Us What It Used To Be, But No Longer Is

POST-SALE RESTRICTIONS Deprive The Right To Resell The Products

Potlatch is a Gift-giving Feast practiced by Indigenous Peoples

Power Is The Capacity To Achieve Goals Even When Opposed

Traditional Power-control Theory and an Extended Power-control Theory

Prejudice is judgment not based on reason or actual experience.

Presentation of Self in Everyday Life is a 1956 Book by Erving Goffman

Prevalence means Proportion which is Expressed as a Percentage

Pre-experimental Design Is Not An Authentic Experiment

PRIMARY LABOUR MARKET Offers Higher Wages And More Stability

Edwin Lemert Argued That Primary Deviance Is Often A Temporary Transgression

Primitive Communism is Associated with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Primitive Society Denotes Early Human Society

The Prisoner's Dilemma is a Game Analyzed in Game Theory

Incarceration may promote prisonization in both novice and experienced inmates

Prison Subculture is the Culture of Prison Society

Private Hospitals In India With World Class Clincal Facilities

PRIVATE SECTOR Is NON-GOVERNMENT And Controlled By Private Individuals

PRIVATE DOMAIN OR PRIVATE SPHERE Describes Women's Location In Society

PRIVATIZATION is Transferring Ownership from the Public Sector to the Private Sector

PROBABILITY SAMPLE Ensures Equal Random Selection

"The everyday world is problematic" - Dorothy Smith

Procedural Law Is The Rules Governing Procedure Of The Courts

A profession Is An Occupational Group That Is Largely Self-regulating

PROGRESSIVE TAXATION Progressively Increases The Tax

Progressivism as the urban counterpart to Populism

Proletariat is the social class that does not have ownership.

Proportional Taxation Lies Between Regressive Taxation and Progressive Taxation

Protestantism as a doctrine is opposite Roman Catholicism

What is Protestant Ethic?

Psychoanalysis Is A Method Of Investigation Of The Mind

Reductionism In Psychology - Strengths And Weaknesses

Psychopathy is a Personality Disorder Characterized Impaired Empathy and Remorse

Public Domain is as Important to Innovation and Culture as Intellectual Property

Public Sector has Social rather than Financial Objectives

Public Health Officer Takes a Different View of Crime than does a Police Constable


Sound And Fury, And The Making Of The Punditocracy

PUNISHMENT is a Negative Sanction Imposed on the Violator

Qualitative Research Methods And Qualitative Research Techniques

Quantitative analysts represent a given reality in terms of a numerical value

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH allows for the Measurement of Variables

Examples of Quasi-experiment Research Design Are The Natural Experiment or Trend Analysis

Quasi-realism is a form of Non-cognitivism or Expressivism

Gay and Lesbian Studies or Queer Culture Studies has become as Legitimate

Race Classification System Uses Four Major Groups: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid And Australoid

Racism Occurs Where Past Injustices Lead To Present Inequalities

Radical Feminism is Recent and Differs from Traditional Marxism

Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf Enriched Class Theory And Role Theory

Randomized Testing Must Ensure That Tests Are Random

Rate Is Synonym Of Rhythm Or Frequency. Criminologists Calculate Crime Rates

Rationality Is A Human's Basic Virtue and the Source of all Human Virtues

The process of rationalization affects economic life, law, administration, and religion.

Rational Choice Theory is an Empirical Theory of Human Behavior

Albert Cohen Proposed Status Frustration And Reaction Formation

Red-Collar Crimes are Written Off as Crimes of Passion

Normative Reference Group Versus Informational Reference Groups

Reflexivity Means That An Object Or Behavior And The Description Have A Mirror-like Relationship


REGRESSIVE TAXATION. A Tax Structure Where Well-off Pay Less


Reification Is Treating That Which Is Abstract As Tangible

An Individual's Behavior is Shaped by Reinforcement or by Punishment

RELATIVE AUTONOMY is state power based on Marxist Ideas

Reliability Refers To Consistency Of Results Over Time

What Is Religiosity? What Is Religion?

Religious Right has Socially Conservative Views of many Fundamentalist Religions

Republic Is A Society With No Hereditary Head Of State

"Industrial Reserve Army Of Labour" or "Relative Surplus Population"

Socialization, Resocialization, and Re-engineering of Vaues and Norms

Corporate Restructuring, Debt Restructuring And Financial Restructuring

RETRIBUTION must be Distinguished from Revenge and Retaliation

Reverse Discrimination is Discrimination in Favor of Members of Historically Disadvantaged Group

Revolutions Transformed Society, Culture, Philosophy, And Technology

Right Of Publicity Is Very Similar To The Tort Of Appropriation

Right-libertarianism is also known as Libertarian Capitalism

Rites of Passage is Graduation passage from One Stage to the Next

Ritual is an action performed because of its Symbolic Significance

Role Theory was a central piece of Merton's Theory of Social Groups

Role Theory was a central piece of Merton's Theory of Social Groups

"Never been a millionaire and I tell you mama I don’t care"

Roland Barthes Is Associated With Post-structuralism

ROLE Is A Position Within Social Structure Shaped By Norms

Role Convergence And Rising Crime Rate Among Women

ROLE DISTANCING Is A Concept From Dramaturgical Sociology

ROLE PLAYING occurs when One Pretends Role of Another

ROLE STRAIN Is The Stress From The Performance Of A Role


Role Theory also includes categories of Social Roles like Cultural Roles and Gender Roles

Over one million Romani people live in the United States

Opportunities for Crime are a function of the Routine Activity Patterns

What is the rule of law? Why is rule of law good?

Rural Sociology Involves The Examination Of Rural Statistical Data And Rural Development

St. Nicholas of Myra Became The Santa Claus To The world

The Russian Revolution Refers to a Series of Revolutions in Russia

Russian Copyright Law


Ramdom Samples And Non-random Samples

Objective of Scientific Management Is To Improve Efficiency And Productivity

Scientific Methods Discover The Causes And The Relationships Between Variables

SECONDARY DEVIANCE is the internalizing of deviant identity.

Secondary labour market refers to low paying labor intensive jobs.

The Body Image Depends a Good Deal on the Secondary Sexual Characteristics



Acts by anyone or any group Against a Legally Elected Government

The Tendency to Actualize, as much as possible, Individual Capacities in the World

The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins

Self-control is a key concept in the general theory of crime

SELF-GOVERNMENT Also Means Self-determination

Self-reported Delinquency Technique Of Measuring Involvement in Delinquent and Criminal Behavior

SELF-REPORT STUDY is a method for measuring crime.

Concepts of Judicial Independence and Separation of Powers Have Become Political Rhetoric

Sequential Analysis or Conversation Analysis is one of Three Central Themes In Ethnomethodology

Serfs and Serfdom flourished in Europe till the 19th Century

SERVICE ECONOMY is Based on Provision of Service

Sexting is another manifestation of Cyberbullying

Sexual Dimorphism is Differences between Males and Females

Most Societies Adhering To The Cult Of Domesticity Have Had Sexual Division Of Labour

Feminism is a theory of Sexual Stratification and Gender Difference

Sex, Sex typing and Sexism

Cultivation Is Terminated When The Soil Shows Signs Of Exhaustion

Sigmund Freud Proposed the Existence of an Unconscious Element

'A pig is coming' is the Signifier, while the Content of the expression is the Signified

Where Had Birds Gone? The Few Birds Seen Trembled Violently. A Silent Spring Without Voices.

Still, A Man Hears What He Wants To Hear, And Disregards The Rest


Crime Prevention Strategies That Aim At Reducing Criminal Opportunities

Slavery And Slaves Symbolized The Dominance Of The Victor Over The Vanquished

Snob Effect refers to the Desire to Possess a Unique Commodity having a Prestige Value

Social Activism Brings About Social Change

Cultural Anthropology Or Social Anthropology?

SOCIAL CAPITAL Facilitates Cooperation For Mutual Benefit

What is Social Change? The Notion of Social Change and Agents of Social Change

Social Contract Is Agreed Upon Norms And Values

Social Control is the central fact and the central problem of society

Social Customs And Traditions In Argentina

Social Customs And Traditions In Poland

Social Customs And Traditions In Sri Lanka

Social Customs And Traditions Of The World

Social Customs And Traditions In Spain

Educational Inequality is one of the Topmost Reasons for Social Inequality


Social Movements And Social Activism.

Patterns of Relationships Organized to Meet some Human Needs

SOCIAL PLANNING, Socially Responsible Planning

Being Perceived as Popular is a Key Determinant of Social Power in Peer Groups

Studying Social Problems involes the Study of Poverty and all Types of Inequality

Socal Psychology Bridges the Gap between Psychology and Sociology

What is social stratification? Social stratification lies at the core of society

Social Structure is the patterned arrangement of Social Role and Social Status

Co-operative Ownership Of Economic Resources, Economic Equality Of Condition

Socialist Feminism sees Gender and Class Oppression as Inseparable

Socialization is the Learning and Internalizing of the Culture of a Society or Group

Social Analysis Explores Historical And Structural Relationships

Social Bond is the Degree to which an Individual is Integrated into the Society

Social Class is individuals sharing a common situation

Social Construction of Gender is part of Feminism and Feminist Controversies

Social Construction of Reality is an aspect of Interpretive Perspectives


Social Customs And Traditions Of Bhutan

Social Customs And Traditions In Cambodia

Social Customs And Traditions In China

Customs And Traditions Of India

Social Customs And Traditions In Indonesia

Social Customs and Traditions In Nepal

Social Customs And Traditions In Japan

Social Customs And Traditions In Korea

Social Customs And Traditions In Malaysia

Social Customs In Philippines And Social Traditions In Philippines

Social Customs Thailand,Traditions In Thailand

Social Darwinism was the Basis for Hitler's Notion of Superiority of the Aryan Race

Modern Welfare-State Liberalism is closely allied to Social Democracy

The social disorganization theory was developed by the Chicago School

Social Economy helps in Creating an Inclusive Society

Human Relationships can be Understood in Terms of an Exchange of Roughly Equivalent Values

Social Identity assumes some commonalities with others.

Normative Goal of Social Integration will make Social Disintegration Undesirable

Social Interaction is the Process by which People Act And React


A Social Map Is A Visual Representation Of A Social Network

Social Market Economy And Europe's Social Model

The Sociology of Social Movements

The term 'social network' was coined in 1954 by J. A. Barnes

Social Order Consists Of A Set Of Shared Social Norms

Social Policy was Developed to Complement to Social Work Studies

SOCIAL REACTION THEORY or labeling theory.


SOCIAL SEGMENTATION could be Based on Social Status or Cultural Status

Social Solidarity, Mechanical Solidarity, Collective Solidarity And Organic Solidarity

Achieved Social Status And Ascribed Social Status

SOCIAL STRAIN is Functionalist Approach to Systems Theory

Social Technologies Help Seek And Share Information

Atheists and Agnostics are often confused with Theists and Deists

Society Is A Human Community Sharing A Common Culture


SOCIOBIOLOGY Begins with the Assumption that Humans are Animals.

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS is used to operationalize or measure social class

Sociological Methodology is Methods Best Suited To Understand Data Collection Strategies, and Analyze Data

Contemporary Schools Of Sociological Theories

Sociological Imagination is a Sociological Vision

Sociologists Conduct Research that may be applied directly to Social Policy and Social Welfare

How Social Structures that many regard as natural are Shaped by Complex Social Processes

Sociology Of Children And Their Childhood

Sociology of Arts is concerned with the Social Worlds of Arts and Aesthetics

Death, Dying, Bereavement And Thanatology

Social Construction of Disability, its Historical, Institutional, Emotional Dimensions

Sociology of Education and the multidimensionality of education.

Sociology Of Environment Abstracts

What is Sociology of Environment? What is Environmentalism?

Sociology of Family

The Study of the Relationship between Media and Society

The Narrative Formula, and its Interrelated Family of Characters

Gambling As A Consequence Of One's Social Or Subcultural Environment

Social phenomena is all about groups

Sociological Concepts of Health and Medicine

How We Know What We Know?

Study of the legal system and its ramifications

Leisure Sociology or the Sociology of Leisure?

Who Studies Sociology of Music and Why?

Social Phenomenon Of Rape

Sociology Of Religion Is About Religion And Its Social Dimensions

How Are Sexualities Socially Constructed?

Perspectives on the Dynamics of the Workplace and Labor Markets

Somatotypes Were Associated With Personality And Temperament By Criminologists

Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act In The United States

SOUL Refers To Psyche, The Self, Or Human Consciousness

Conceptions of Sovereignty are Narrow and Increasingly Anachronistic

Spanish Copyright Law

Speciesism and Racism involve Discrimination and Exploitation

SPECIFIC DETERRENCE is also referred to as Individual Deterrence

Specific Land Claims Arise From Improper Administration Of Lands

Spirit Of Capitalism Is Methodical And Calculating In The Pursuit Of Profit

In Sponsored Mobility, Elite Status Is Not Earned, But Given On Objective Criterion

Spuriousness is the Incorrect Inference of a Causal Relationship

Sputnik Was The First Earth-orbiting Satellite

Stalinism refers to the Political System under the leadership of Joseph Stalin

State Capitalism is a term used to describe Communist Systems

STATE Is The Institution With Legitimate Rights To Enforce Laws

Statistical School Developed A Structural Explanation Of Crime And Social Problems

Was There A Statistically Significant Difference?

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics

Status Indian refers to First Nations of Canada

Status Offense Also Refers To An Offense Such As A Traffic Violation

STATUTES Are Laws Enacted By A Sovereign Law-making Body


We have generalizations like the Female Stereotype who like Romance Novels

Stigma Is Attached To An Individual With Negative Evaluation

Sigmata Refers to Physical Signs of the State of Atavism

STONEWALL INN gave birth to Gay Activism and Gay Rights Movement

Stonewal Riots at the Stonewall Inn In June 1969

Stratification Is The Condition Of Being Stratified


Streaming Is The Assigning Of Students To Distinctive Streams

In Every Event There Is A Hidden Structure Called Deep Structure

The Structuralist Approach spans across a Broad Spectrum of Disciplines

Structural Explanation In Sociology And The Egalitarian Imperative

Social Structures are Placed at the Center of Analysis in Structural Functionalism

Human Actors Recreate Through Their Interactions The Very Social Structures Which Constrain Their Actions

SUBCULTURAL TRANSMISSION Occurs Through Socialization

SUBCULTURE been treated as synonymous with the population comprising the subsociety

Subjectivism Accords Primacy To Subjective Experience As Fundamental

The Sufficiency of Disclosure Requirement Is The Base Of Patent Law

SUFFICIENT CONDITION A Proposition Whose Truth Assures The Truth Of Another Proposition

Suffrage is the Right to Vote in Political Matters

David Emile Durkheim While Analysing Suicide Argued Against Psychological Reductionism

Summary Offences Are Petty Offenses Or Less Serious Criminal Offence

Freud believed that the id, ego, and superego conflict

Superstitions Arise When Humans Cannot Explain Superstitious Phenomena

Superstructure is Central to the Materialist Concept of History

Supplementary Protection Certificate Is Similar To A Patent

In Supraterritoriality, Barriers To The Flow Of Goods And Services Are Eliminated

SURPLUS VALUE is the value left over After Paying The Costs

Surplus Is The Excess Of Production Over Resources Used

Sustainable Development is Economic Activity with Due Consideration Given to Carrying Capacity


Switzerland Copyright Law


Symbolic Communication is Demonstrated by the Cars We Drive and the House we Live In

Symbolic Interactionism Examines Stratification from a Micro-level Perspective

Originally Known as Revolutionary Syndicalism in France, later came to be known as Syndicalism


Taboo Is Cultural Prohibition. Taboo Also Means Forbidden

Talcott Parsons' starting point is the Theory of Social Action

Target Suitability is Mediated By the Target's Accessibility

For Technologists, Technocracy Is An Eternal Temptation

Technophile. Technophilia Is Contrasted With Technophobia

Technophobia and Technofear arise from Technophobe, a person who fears Technology

Telemedicine Is Patient Monitoring Through Mobile Technology

"My Girl", "Just My Imagination", and "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone"

What is Terrorism?, Who is a Terrorist?

Justifying Terrorism For National Liberation

Terms Common In The Study Of Terrorism

What Is Terrorism? And Who Becomes A Terrorist?

Terrorist Group Typologies Include Religious Fundamentalist and Nationalist-separatist

Who Are Terrorist Groups?

Terrorist Ideology And Religious Perception

"The Terrorist Loves Only The Socially Redeeming Qualities Of His Act, Not The Act Itself"

Textual Analysis Is Used To Understand Social Life

Thanatology is the Scientific Study of Death and Bereavement

Theocracy Is Government By God Through A Priestly Order

Theodor Adorno Was A Member Of Frankfurt School Of Critical Theory

Theory is Analytic Structure Designed To Explain Empirical Observations

What do the terms left and right in politics mean?

First World, Second World, Third World, And Fourth World Countries

Thorstein Veblen Developed an Economic Sociology of Capitalism

Three-strikes Laws Impose Harsh Sentences On Habitual Offenders

Token Economy is a behavior therapy based on Operant Learning Principles

Tort Is Neglect Of Legally Recognized Duties Of Care To Others

TORY AND TORYISM. A Tory Is A Member Of The Tory Political Party

TOTAL INSTITUTION are Involved in the Process Of Resocialization

Totalitarianism is an Extreme Version of Authoritarianism

Trade Secret Case Law.

Trade Secrets Law Protects Confidential Business Information

Trademark Case Law

Trademark Dilution Law Protects Trademarks As A Property Right

Trademark Infringement is a Violation of the Exclusive Rights

Trade Mark Law Protects Marks that Identify Goods and Services

TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE Is Local Or Indigenous Knowledge

Transnational Corporation is also called a Multinational Corporation

Transnationalism Is A Social Phenomenon Grown Out Of Interconnectivity

Transsexual Is Beyond The Boundary Between The Sexes

Transvestitism means in Latin trans (across), and vestitus (dressed)

Travis Warner Hirschi Wrote That Social Bonds Encouraged Conforming Behavior

Triad Is A Chinese Secret Society And Resistance Fighters

Tribalism occurs where social identification has broken down.

True Experiment Are High On Internal Validity

The Truman Doctrine Speech Marked A Change In American Foreign Policy

A Member of the Royal Family descended from Owen Tudor

Type Errors Are Used To Describe Possible Errors In Statistics

Typification is perceiving the world by means of Types and Typology

Typology Deals with Classes with Common Characteristics

Uberisation like Mcdonaldization and eBayization is the Catchphrase in Globalization

UK Copyright Law

Ulrich Beck and Modernization, Globalization, Ecological Problems and Individualism

UNDERCLASS Underclass is a term similar to Karl Marx's concept of LUMPENPROLETARIAT

Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy

A cloned child has Unilineal Descent, genetically kin to only one progenitor

The most Frequent Unit Of Analysis is the Individual

Univariate Analysis Gives Data On One Variable

A Proposition is said to have Universality if it Does Not Create A Contradiction

The movement of affluent people into a lower-class area

Urban Sociology Covers Urban Gentrification And Metropolitan Region

URBANISM - New Urbanism, Everyday Urbanism, and Post-Urbanism

United States Copyright Law

Greatest Possible Satisfaction For The Greatest Number

Utility Model Laws Are Similar To Those Granted By Patent Laws

Utterances Are Speech Examined By Conversational Analysis

If Data is Reliable But Not Valid, then it may have Limited Use

VALUES are cultural prescriptions of What Is Right And Moral

Variable Is A Term Central To Quantitative Sociology

Preference for Exclusive Goods is for Snob Effect, which is similar to Veblen Effect

"I am a Vegan because I hate plants." - A. Whitney Brown

VERSTEHEN Literally Means Understanding Or Comprehension

Vertical Integration Is One Method Of Avoiding The Hold-up Problem

VERTICAL SOCIAL MOBILITY can be upward or downward social mobility.

National Crime Victimization Survey Helps In Calculating Crime Rates

Examples Of Victimless Crime And Willing Participants

Violent Predators Are Violent Sexual Offenders

Virtual Communities Are Online Communities Using Social Networking Services

Visible Minorities are Non-whites in Canada who make up a Racial Formation

WAR CRIMES Are Atrocities Against Any Civilian Population

Equality of Opportunity, Public Responsibility and Equitable Distribution of Wealth

What Motivates Terrorists? What Motivates Terrorism?

Antitrust laws limit the market power of any particular firm

Society is in a state of Perpetual Conflict

Mercantilism's principle is that the world's wealth was static

Ransomware is malicious software that holds a computer system hostage



William Henry Beveridge report served as the basis for Welfare State

William Isaac Thomas Introduced the concept of 'Definition Of The Situation'

World Intellectual Property Organization Treaty

WIPO Alternative Domain Name Dispute Resolution Procedures

WIPO Mediation Rules

Women's Movement is also known as the Feminist Movement

Women's Liberation Theory Covers The Women's Liberation Movement

Working Class Culture Is Cultures Created By Working Class People

Working Class are those who are Employed in Lower Tier Jobs

Works Made For Hire Is Also Known As Corporate Authorship

World-Systems Theory was developed by Immanuel Wallerstein

Xenophobia is irrational hatred of people perceived as foreign

Xinhai Chinese Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution

The Average Person Must Be Forced To Work

Y Theory or Theory Y Assumes that Employees are Self-motivated

Yankee Cowboy Thesis Relates To American Capitalists

A Yellow Dog Contract Restrains Unionism

Youthful Offender System Addresses Youth Violence

Yuppie And The Muppie Likes To Be Part Of The In-Crowd

Z Theory Was Developed By William Ouchi In 'Theory Z'

Zaibatsu was succeeded by the Keiretsu

Zeitgeist Is The Spirit Of The Time Characteristic Of A Period

Zero-sum Game is Different from Non-zero-sum Game

Zoning Laws Are Used As Planning Tools

Zygmunt Bauman figures among eminent sociologists of the world



Guru And Guide: Prof Son-Ung Kim
Prof Son-Ung Kim
Editor: Rajrathnam V P