Sociology Index Editor: firstname.lastname@example.org Guide: Prof Son-Ung Kim
Sociology is the science whose object is to
interpret the meaning of social action according to Max Weber.
Sociology thereby gives a causal explanation of the way in which the action proceeds and
the effects which it produces.
Society is best conceived as the product of interactions between component individuals controlled by a body of traditions and norms. According to Park social control is the central fact and the central problem of society.
The problems of modern life flow from the attempt of the individual to maintain the independence and individuality of his existence against the sovereign powers of society. - Georg Simmel.
Sociology Topical Index And Dictionary - A
Aboriginal Peoples of Canada - Contrary to the belief of Europeans, that the "state of nature" can and should be improved through the labour of man, "Aboriginals view the natural world as perfect."
Aboriginal Culture and Tradition - Everything an Aboriginal does is in a circle, and that is because the Power of the World always works in circles. When aboriginal people were strong and happy, all their power came to their sacred hoop of the nation and so long as the hoop was unbroken the people flourished.
Accounting - Accounting is rationalizations that people provide for their actions. In ethnomethodology the term accounting is used to refer to the practices of observation and reporting which make objects and events observable and objective.
Acculturation - Acculturation is the adoption of or adaptation to an alien culture. Acculturation takes place as societies experience the transforming impact of international cultural contact.
Acephalous Society - Acephalous literally means headless, society without any formalized or institutionalized system of power and authority. Related to acephalous concept are monocephalous and polycephalous.
Action Theory - Action theory is a sociological perspective that focuses on the individual as a subject. This approach has its foundations in Max Weber's interpretive sociology which claims that it is necessary to know the subjective purpose and intent of the actor before an observer can understand the meaning of social action.
Activism - Activism is a policy of vigorous action both social and political. Activism is protest or dissent. Activism can have many political colors. Activism can bring about social change and political change.
Actus Reus - Actus reus is one of two components of a crime, the other being mens rea. Actus reus refers to the physical component of a crime, the act of committing the crime. Mens rea is the mental component of crime, the existence of a criminal intent, and this requires the offender to have intended to carry out the physical act.
Affirmative Action - Affirmative action is positive steps that are taken to increase the representation of women and minorities in the areas like employment, education, and business. Affirmative action generates controversy where it involves selection on the basis of race, gender, and ethnicity.
Ageism - Ageism is the assumption that a person's age should determine their social status and their roles in society. Ageism usually refers to stereotyping and devaluation of seniors.
Agency - Agency is linked to sociologies which focus on the individual as a subject and view social action as something purposively shaped by individuals within a context to which they have given meaning. Usually contrasted with those sociologies which focus on social structure.
Aging and Gerontology - Aging is a universal phenomenon that adversely affects human beings. Gerontology is the branch of science that deals with old age, the ageing process. The study of gerontology provides students with knowledge and critical understanding of the processes of aging and adult development.
Aging - Is a phenomenon that adversely affects all beings.
Agreement on TRIPS - TRIPS lays down the requirements that nations' laws must meet for copyright rights, geographical indications, industrial designs, patents, monopolies for the developers of new plant varieties, trademarks, trade dress, and undisclosed or confidential information.
Alger Hiss - In 1948 a magazine editor, who confessed to being a communist, accused Hiss of assisting in the transmittal of documents to the Russians. Alger Hiss denied any involvement but was found guilty in his second trial and sentenced to five years in prison.
Alienation - Alienation is separation of individuals from control and direction of their social life. The term alienation was used widely in German philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries, but it has become important for sociology through the ideas of Karl Marx.
Alterity - Alterity is a term central to postmodern discussions of identity in which the self is given meaning in terms of an other. Alterity is a state of, or condition of, otherness. The term alterity is useful for thinking about how many peoples throughout history have been cast in the role of inferior.
Altruism - Altruism is social behaviour and value orientation in which individuals give primary consideration to the interests and welfare of other individuals. In altruistic regard for others is the principle of action.
Altruistic Suicide - The term 'altruism' was used by Emile Durkheim to describe a Suicide committed for the benefit of others or for the community. Altruistic suicides reflect a courageous indifference to the loss of one's life
Amazon - Amazons are members of a legendary nation of female warriors in Greek mythology. The Kaska Indians performed a transformation ceremony to symbolically turn the daughter into a son. She dressed like males and engaged in hunting. The counterpart of this role among men is called berdache.
American Revolution - The American Revolution occurred during the last half of the 18th century when Britain's colonies in North America overthrew the governance of the Parliament of Great Britain, and also later rejected the British monarchy to join as the sovereign United States of America.
Amplification of Deviance - Deviance amplification refers to the unintended outcome of moral panics or social policies designed to prevent or reduce deviance. A media phenomenon, 'Amplification of Deviance' or 'deviancy amplification spiral' refers to an exagerated cycle of reporting on particular antisocial behavior.
Anarchism - Anarchism is political philosophy where society has no government, laws, or other authority. Libertarianism was often used as a synonym for anarchism. Anarchism is anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism or participatory economics.
Androgyny - Androgyny is a personality which holds a balance of feminine and masculine characteristics. Some feminists have advocated gender androgyny as a source of liberation from polarized cultural ideas of masculine and feminine.
Anomia - Anomia is a social psychological condition. Anomia describes the individual's lack of integration in social life. Anomia is more closely related to occupational aspiration than to occupational level
Anomic Division of Labour - There is anomic division of labour where the division of labour in the workplace is based on power and social and economic status and not on individual ability. According to David Emile Durkheim, the division of labour cannot command normative consensus and may become a source of anomie and breakdown of social solidarity.
Anomic Suicide - Durkheim linked anomic Suicide to disillusionment and disappointment. Durkheim borrowed the word anomie from the french philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau and used it in his book Suicide. In the concept of anomie individuals lack a sense of social regulation and people feel unguided in the choices they have to make.
Anomie - Durkheim defined the term anomie as a condition where social and/or moral norms are confused, unclear, or simply not present. Durkheim felt that this lack of norms led to deviant behavior.
Anthropology - Cultural - Cultural anthropology or Social anthropology is the science of human social and cultural behaviour and its development. Cultural anthropology is conceptually and theoretically similar to sociology.
Anthropology - Physical - Physical anthropology is the science of human zoology, evolution, and ecology. It is centred on the scientific study of the origins and development of human beings through analysis of fossil and skeletal remains.
Anti-Semitism - Anti-Semitism is a negative and hostile attitude to Jews and the Jewish religion. The extreme expression of anti-Semitism was the Holocaust, when six million Jews were murdered in German concentration camps during World War II.
Anticombines Law - In order to protect the principle of competition, valued by all capitalistic societies, anti-combines laws have been created to prevent and punish the undermining of free market economics by corporate combination.
Antisocial Personality Disorder - Antisocial personality disorder is a personality disorder that involves disregard for the rights of others and impulsive, irresponsible and aggressive behaviour. Antisocial personality disorder is connected to many of society's ills.
Apartheid - racial segregation - Apartheid is a policy of racial segregation maintained in South Africa from 1948 to 1991. Apartheid was maintained by laws that included the prohibition of inter-racial marriage and outlawed racially integrated political and social organizations.
South Africa - Nationalist Government in South Africa enacted laws to define
and enforce segregation.
South Africa's apartheid was formalised through laws.
Archaeology - Archaeology is one of the main fields of anthropology since it offers the only method for studying lost and forgotten cultures.
Architectural Sociology - Sociological theories that focus on cultural patterns, social relationships, and social psychology are especially used to explain and interpret architectural design.
Aristocracy - Aristocracy is government of a State run by its elite citizens. Oligarchy is a State so governed. Origins of the word aristocracy imply the meaning of "rule by the best."
Ascription - Ascription is assigning some quality or character to a person or thing. The principle of merit is consistent with liberal theory and assumes equality of opportunity. Meritocracy is rule by those chosen on the principle of merit.
Assimilation - Assimilation occurs where an ethnic group loses distinctiveness and becomes absorbed into a majority culture.
Assumption of Discriminating Traits - The view that offenders are distinguished from non-offenders by, for example, their high levels of impulsivity and aggression. There is actually an assumption of discriminating traits.
Assumption of Offender Deficit - There is an assumption of offender deficit when there is an offence committed by a citizen. It is assumed that offenders against the law have some psychological deficit.
Astrosociology - The main purpose of the Astrosociology Research Institute (ARI) is to develop astrosociology as an academic field. A concentration on astrosocial phenomena ties theoreticians, researchers, and scholars together, as does a focus on the human dimension of space exploration in general terms.
Astroturfing - Astroturfing is advocacy, often in support of a political or corporate agenda appearing as a "grassroots" movement. Astroturfing may be by an individual promoting a personal agenda, or highly organized professional groups.
Atavism - Atavism is a tendency to reproduce ancestral type in plants and in animals; to resemble one's grandparents or great-grandparents more than parents. Atavism is the tendency of animals or plants to revert to an ancestral type. Resemblance to more remote ancestors rather than to parents.
Atheism - Atheism is as old as religion. We see Atheism so widespread in civilization 2,500 years ago that it takes a prominent place in history in the form of the Ionian philosophy of Greece and the ethic of Buddha and Confucius in Asia.
Attachment - Attachment is the degree to which an individual has affective ties to other persons. In Travis Hirschi's work, aspects of the social bond.
Audience - Audience refers to a group of individuals attending to a common media. They receive communication from the same source, but are not active participants and do not communicate with each other. In sociology, the terms 'audience' and 'audience studies' is used to draw attention to the way that media corporations develop audiences of readers, listeners and viewers with the business objective of selling access to this audience to advertisers.
Audience Studies - The field of scholarship including market-oriented research where audience is studied is commonly designated as Audience Studies.
Authority - Authority is the capacity of an individual or institution to secure compliance from others based on the possession of a recognized right to legitimately claim obedience.
Authoritarianism - Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by the authority of the state in a republic or union. A political system controlled by nonelected rulers. Authoritarianism is marked by indefinite political tenure. Totalitarianism is considered to be an extreme version of authoritarianism.
Autocracy - Autocracy is the concentration of power in the hands of one person. Autocracy refers to a situation where state power is controlled by a monarch, religious leader or political dictator. The term 'autocracy' can also be applied to particular social institutions where one individual has dominant power and authority.
Automation - Automation is methods of production that rely on mechanical or electronic technologies as a replacement for human labor. Human-centered automation problems have an attribute reflecting human goals and capabilities, and an attribute reflecting automation goals and capabilities.
Background Knowledge - Background knowledge as used by ethnomethodologists refers to commonsense reasoning. Members of society, and sociologists, use background knowledge of culture and social structure as an unstated source of guidance in their reasoning.
Base (Infrastructure) - Base is a concept from Marxism that refers to the mode of production of a society: the social and technical organization of its economy. Karl Marx argued that it is upon this base that the superstructure of the society - its institutions and culture - are built. While the social institutions and culture of society are shaped by this base, at the same time, they help to maintain and reproduce the mode of production and may, in certain conditions contribute to its transformation.
Belief - Belief is the degree to which an individual believes in conventional values, morality, and the legitimacy of law. In Travis Hirschi's work, aspects of the social bond. Belief is also an important factor when measuring social bonds and is defined as the acceptance of a conventional value system (Durkin et al., 1999). The four components of social bond theory are attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief (Hirschi, 1969).
Behavior - Behavioral Science is the analysis of human behavior and major social institutions and phenomena, including social inequality, the family, politics, economics, and health from a sociological perspective.
Berdache or Two Spirits - Berdache is generally a male who takes on the roles of women and who may also dress as a woman and engage in sexual intimacy with men. Berdache also refers to a transvestite or a person given to transvestitism. More recently, the term Two Spirits, which has traditional roots, has been preferred. While the term berdache is sometimes used to refer to women who take on male roles there do not appear to have been female berdache in North America and authors tend to prefer the term amazon to describe these women.
Berlin Wall - Berlin Wall of concrete and minefields was built in 1961 between the eastern sector of the city of Berlin and the western sector. The wall was built at the direction of the Soviet Union to prevent migration from east to west and to minimize cultural contact between east and west. With the uprising against communism in east Germany, the east German government was forced to declare free rights of emigration for all citizens and in December of 1989 the Wall was opened for free passage.
Bilineal Descent - Bilineal descent is system of family descent where blood links and rights of inheritance through both male and female ancestors are of equal importance. Tracing kinship through both parents. The most common form is bilateral descent. A system of tracing descent through both the mothers and fathers sides of the family.
Biotechnology And Bioethics - The impact of biotechnology on the life, environment, food and culture is bound to be enormous, encompassing the physical and the metaphysical world. Though biotechnology will help improve the quality of life, the ethical issues are bound to raise a lot of debate and opposition. While some political leaders of the world are able to appreciate the biotechnological developments, all the religious pigheads are hell-bent on obstructing everything that seems to take away the given powers of God.
Bivariate Analysis - Bivariate
analysis is concerned with the relationships between pairs of variables (X, Y) in a data
set. Bivariate analysis, explores the concept of association between two variables. The
association is based on how two variables simultaneously change together, that is, the
notion of co-variation.
Bivariate analysis is the simultaneous analysis of two variables. It is usually undertaken to see if one variable is related to another variable. Multivariate analysis is the simultaneous analysis of three or more variables.
Blog or WebLog - Blog is the short form for Web Log. Blog has revolutionized the way one's thought is communicated to the world through the medium of Internet.There are thousands of blogs maintained by people from different countries and of all age groups. Web Logs or Blogs are thus a rich source of information for sociological and psychological study. Web Logs or Blogs can reflect the state of the society and also the government through the bloggers views. Blogs gained popularity during elections and the recent war in Iraq.
Blue-collar Crime - Blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by individuals of a higher social class. There may be more white collar crime than blue collar crime. Those employed in relatively unskilled environments and living in inner-city areas have fewer "situations" to exploit.
Bourgeois Class - Bourgeois was originally a citizen or freeman of a city or burgh, as distinct from a peasant or a gentleman. Now, bourgeois is any member of the middle class. "Bourgeois" was formally a legal category in society, defined by conditions such as length of residence and source of income. Bourgeois was originally a (particularly French) citizen or freeman of a city or burgh.
Bracketing - Bracketing approach focuses on revealing the beliefs, ideas and values that are simply taken for granted in the social world. By suspending belief in the naturalness and normality of the social world (placing what are normally automatic assumptions in brackets) bracketing reveals the underlying thinking and values that people bring to bear in understanding the world and engaging in social action.
Brave New World - Brave new world is the the title of a 1932 book by futurist and social critic, Aldous L Huxley (1894-1963). In the brave new world Huxley imagines the authorities of society use new technologies, drugs and instruments of propaganda like subliminal advertising to keep people happy and unaware or unconcerned about what is actually happening to them and their communities.
Bride Price - 'Bride price' is the transfer of wealth or possessions by the groom or, more typically, his family, to the bride's family on marriage. 'Bride price' is a payment of money or goods made to a bride or her parents by the bridegroom or his parents.
Broken Window Theory - Broken window theory suggests promoting walking-the-beat form of policing on the basis that indicators of neighbourhood disrepair such as a broken window foster criminality. The logic is that signs of neighbourhood decay lead residents to withdraw from public life of the neighbourhood and thereby reduce the efficacy of informal social control, leaving the area open for serious criminal misdemeanours.
Brown vs Topeka Board of Education - 'Brown vs Topeka Board of Education' was a case before the Supreme Court of the United States which resulted in a 1954 ruling that set aside a Kansas statute that permitted cities of over 15,000 to maintain separate schools for blacks and whites. The court ruled that all segregation in public schools was inherently unequal, thus beginning the desegregation of schooling and eventually of other public places and programs.
Bureaucracy - Bureaucracy is a formal organization with clearly defined objectives, a hierarchy of specialized roles and systematic processes of direction and administration. Bureaucracy can be found in earlier times in history in administration of agricultural irrigation systems, the Roman army, the Catholic church, though it is prominently visible in the large-scale administration of agencies of the modern state and modern business corporations.
Calvinism - John Calvin's international influence on the development of the doctrines of the Protestant Reformation began at the age of 25. Calvinism is important for sociologists as a component of the Protestant ethic, considered favorable to the development of capitalism.
Capital - Capital is accumulation of goods or wealth used for the production of other goods and services rather than for immediate or personal use. If a computer is used to generate revenue then only it can be considered capital. Capital is central to a capitalist economic system. We also have human capital, social capital or individual capital.
Capital Accumulation - Capital accumulation is the process of accumulating resources for use in the production of goods and services. Private capital accumulation occurs when productive capacity exceeds the immediate needs for consumption.
Capital Punishment - Capital punishment is the punishment of crime by execution of the offender. The word capital in 'capital punishment' is from Latin and it refers to the head, the locus of life. Capital punishment is still widely imposed in world societies. Capital punishment has been abolished in the countries of western Europe and in Canada.
Capitalism - Capitalism is an economic system in which capital (goods or wealth used to produce other goods for profit) is privately owned and profit is reinvested so as to accumulate capital. The dynamics of the economic exchange in capitalism are unique.
Career Criminal - Career criminal has been applied to analyzing the various stages of an individual's involvement with criminal activity. Career criminal is one whose criminality is just like a career. Career criminals devote many aspects of their life to criminality.
Cargo Cult - Since the time E E. Williams characterized the cargo cult phenomenon as a kind of madness, but this characterization has been challenged by anthropologists. Cargo cult is a form of millenarian movement that believes in what is to come. The cargo cults involve the belief that ritual activities and observances will lead to the arrival of free cargoes of goods.
Carl Gustav Jung - Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. Carl Jung was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician for most of his life. Carl Jung's unconscious, as opposed to Freud's, serves a very positive role.
Careers In Sociology - Degree in sociology provides you with a useful background for some specific job careers in sociology. Fields such as criminal justice, human services, or personnel and industrial relations provide options for a career in sociology.
Carrying Capacity - Carrying capacity in ecology refers to the level of land or resource use both by humans or animals, that can be sustained over the long term by the natural regenerative power of the environment. Sustainable development is economic activity or growth which does not reduce or deplete the resources available to future generations.
Class Consciousness, False
Classical economic theory
Community crime prevention
Comparative cultural studies
Conservatism - Conservatism is a set of ideas that is not the same as those upheld by political parties calling themselves Conservative. Conservative parties are strongly associated with the idea of privatization, reduced social programs and promotion of free market economics. Increasing conservatism of Western society is reflected in those entering social work. Social work recruits by their choice of occupation are politically deviant.
Conspicuous consumption - Conspicuous consumption is the public display of individual possession and consumption of expensive goods and services. The theory of 'Veblen effects' arise from the desire to achieve social status by signaling wealth through conspicuous consumption. Conspicuous consumption, as used by Thorsten Veblen, conveys the idea of a society where social status is earned and displayed by patterns of consumption.
Consumer culture - Consumer culture is a culture in which the attainment of ownership and possession of goods and services is presented as the primary aim and the key source of social status and prestige. Consumer Culture Theory comprises macro, interpretive, and critical approaches to and perspectives of consumer behavior.
Content analysis - Content Analysis is a research method involving data capturing of variables descriptive of the content of a cultural expression such as movies, speeches, cartoons or advertisements.
Contest mobility - Contest mobility is a British term referring to what North Americans would refer to as social mobility through equality of opportunity. Contest mobility refers to system of social mobility in which all individuals are seen as participants in a race and the contest is an open one.
Continentalism - Continentalism was originally associated with the American vision of a manifest destiny of the United States to occupy the whole North American continent. The term continentalism now refers specifically to social and economic policies that encourage and advance economic and political integration of the countries of North America.
Contradictions of capitalism - When capitalist corporations grow more concentrated and larger, the number of individuals owning the means of production become fewer. This leads to political activation of the working class and prolonged conflict with the dominant bourgeois class through political and industrial organization.
Control Group - Control groups are used in controlled experiments to curb bias. Both groups are treated exactly the same in every way possible except for variable difference. The control group is used so that you have something to compare the experimental group to.
Copyleft - All Wrongs Reserved
Correlation - zero order
Criminogenic Market Structure
Cult of Domesticity
Culturally Prescribed Aspirations
Culture And Cultural Studies
Culture of Poverty Thesis
Dark Figure of Crime
Defining the Situation
Developing an IP Strategy
Developmental Crime Prevention
Diffuseness of Roles
Digital Millennium Copyright Act - DMCA
Documentary Method of Interpretation
Domain Name Disputes
Domain Name Disputes Case Law
Dominant Ideology Thesis
Double Blind Procedure
Eldred vs Ashcroft
Electronic Civil Disobedience
Equality of condition
Equality of opportunity
Fair Use and Copyright Law
Fashion Culture and Consumer Culture
Feminization of Poverty
First Line Authorities
First Sale Doctrine
First sale doctrine and patents
Forces of Production
Free Market Economics
Free Trade Zones
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Gender and Woman
Gerontology and Aging
Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft
Good Girls Like Bad Boys
Goods producing economy
Gross counts of crime
Gross domestic product - GDP
Guerrilla Warfare vs Terrorism
Hierarchy of needs theory
Horizontal Social Mobility
Human Capital Accumulation
Hunter gatherer society
Hypotheses of Terrorism
Hypothetico-deductive model of science
Index of socio-economic status
Inequality of condition
Inequality of opportunity
Information Privacy Law
Information Society. What Is Information Society?
Instructional Design Model
Insurgent or Insurgency
Intellectual Property Management
Intellectual Property Rights
Intellectual Property Management Strategy
Internet Law, Cyber Law
Invisible hand of the market
Involvement of States in Terrorism
IP and the Internet
IP in the software industry
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Jekyll and Hyde
Labour Market Segmentation
Labour Theory of Value
Leisure & Sport
Level of Measurement
Looking Glass Self
Macho, or machismo
Marxism And Darwinism
Mass destruction terrorism and WMD
Measure of crime
Medical tourism and Health tourism
Medium is the message
Micro and Macro Sociology
Middle-class measuring rod
Mode of production
Moral development theory
Moral Rights And Copyrights
Negotiation of Criminal Status
One Big Union
Open Class Ideology
Parallel Cousins vs Cross Cousins
Passing off and trade marks law
Patent Law Treaties
Physiological approach to Terrorism
Pink Collar Crime
Plant Varieties Law
Polarization of Classes
Population Studies And Demography
Post Sale Restrictions
Presentation of Self
Primary Labour Market
Private Domain - Sphere
Public Health Model
Public Images of Crime
Rational Choice Theory
Reserve Army of Labour
Right of Publicity
Rites of Passage
Role Theory, Gender
Romani Customs and Traditions
Rule of Law
Russia - St. Nicholas of Myra
Sapir Whorf Bibliography
Secondary Labour Market
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
Separation of Powers
Sexual Division of Labour
Situational Crime Prevention
Social Anthropology or cultural anthropology
Social Construction of Reality
Social Contract Theory
Social Customs And Traditions
Social Control Theory
Social Disorganization Theory
Social Intervention Programs
Social Reaction Theory
Social Relations of Production
Society and Atheism
Sociology and Literature
Sociology as a Career
Sociology of Children and Childhood
Sociology of Leisure and Sport
Sociology of Knowledge
Sociology of Religion
Sonny Bono CTEA
Specific Land Claims
Spirit of Capitalism
Suicide: Altruistic Suicide, Egoistic Suicide, Anomic Suicide, Fatalistic Suicide
Sweat of the Brow Doctrine
Systemic and Empirical Approach
Terrorism - analysing causes of terrorism
Terrorism for National Liberation
Trade Secrets Law
Trade Mark Law
Trade Mark Case Law
Trade Mark Dilution
Trade Mark Infringement
Type 1 Error
Type 2 Error
Unit of Analysis
Utility Model Laws
Vertical Social Mobility
What Motivates Terrorists
WIPO Copyright Treaty
WIPO Mediation Rules
Women's Liberation Theory
Works Made For Hire
World Sociology Departments
World Systems Theory
Xinhai Chinese Revolution
Yellow Dog Contract
Youthful Offender System C-DOC-YOS
Zero Sum Game
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